Open Access Case Study

Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis: About Two Cases

N. Zaghba, H. Harraz, K. Chaanoun, H. Benjelloun, N. Yassine

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 63-67
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2022/v34i1731418

Alveolar microlithiasis (AML) is a rare condition characterized by the accumulation of calcium concretions in the pulmonary alveolar lumen. We report two cases of AML, suspected on chest radiography and confirmed by chest CT scan with pathognomonic appearance and transbronchial lung biopsy. ALM is often asymptomatic in contrast to the importance of the characteristic radiological lesions. The etiology of this pathology is unknown, but a genetic origin with the autosomal recessive transmission is suspected with mutation of the SLC34A2 gene.

Open Access Short Research Article

Ethnobotanical Survey of Plants used in the Management of Pregnancy-Related Illnesses in Parts of Edo State, Nigeria

McDonald Idu, Kenneth Atoe

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 31-40
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2022/v34i1731414

Aims: For many centuries before the invention of conventional drugs plants were the drugs used for the treatment of many illness, till now it has been proven by a lot of researchers that many persons still prefer the use of herbal drugs including pregnant women. This study was carried to find out the plants used for management of pregnancy-related illnesses.

Study Design:  This was a cross-sectional study

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out between January and May, 2019 within five local government areas of Edo State, Nigeria, which make up Benin City.

Methodology: Ethnobotanical data were gathered through general conversations with informants in the field. Fifty people were interviewed during the course of the research. An oral interview was used to gather information, which was led by a semi-structured open-ended questionnaire within five local governments in Edo State.

Results: Respondednts identified sixteen plants for management of pregnancy-related ailments. These sixteen plants' leaves, stems, and roots were primarily used. In the Amaryllidaiea family, Allium sativum, fruits and bulbs were used, whereas in the Euphorbiaceae family, Phyllantus amarus, all plant components were utilised. The Oredo local government had the highest percentage of responders who use Alchornia cordifolia from the Euphorbiaceae family for the treatment of pregnancy-related disorders, with 80 percent agreeing to use the plant.

Conclusion: Among the 16 plants identified, the most-used were Jatropha curcas, Alchornea cordifolia, and Secamone afzelii.

Open Access Original Research Article

Therapeutic Effects of Vitamin E on Paraquat Induced Liver Toxicity in Male Albino Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

Okolonkwo, Benjamin Nnamdi, Chukwubike, Udoka Okeke, Amadi, Chikadibia Fyneface, Nyenke, Clement Ugochukwu

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2022/v34i1731411

Paraquat is a high toxic organic chemical capable of causing organ and tissue damage by generation of free radicals. Vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant which is domiciled within the cells and organelles of the body and functions by acting as an initial responder against oxygen reactive species called free radicals which attack and destroy the tissues. The study was aim to assess a short term therapeutic effect of vitamin E on paraquat induced male albino rat. A total of 200 male albino rats were used for the study which were divided into four main groups (A, B, C, D) and each group had 50 rats. Each group was further subgrouped into two, having 25rats per subgroup. “A” group was without paraquat induction while “B”, ‘C” and “D” groups were induced in increasing dose of 0.02g, 0.04g and 0.06g respectively. “A” group had two subgroups; “Ao” and “Ave” which represented the sub-group not treated with Vit E and the subgroup treated with Vit E (500mg) respectively. This design also applied to group “B”, “C” and “D” and paraquat induction frequency was fortnightly for three month followed by weekly treatment for one month. Blood and liver were collected and harvested respectively for liver function test (TB, CB, albumin, total protein and globulin) and histological assessment of the liver. There was a significant difference in liver function markers among the “Ao”, “Bo”, “Co” and “Do”, p-value<0.05 except for globulin marker. There was a significant difference in liver function markers among the “Ave”, “Bve”, “Cve” and “Dve”, p-value<0.05 except for globulin marker. The result also showed that there were significant differences in intra-group comparison in total bilirubin and conjugated bilirubin markers, p-value<0.05 while other markers were not significantly different. This study observed that vitamin E has therapeutic effect on paraquat induced rats. Therefore, it can be used to reverse liver toxicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Procalcitonin as a Biomarker and Risk Stratification Tool in COVID-19 Patients

O. M. Shah, N. Alaouabda

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 8-16
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2022/v34i1731412

Background: COVID-19 is a systemic disease with a highly variable clinical course, ranging from being asymptomatic to manifestations like bilateral interstitial pneumonia, and multi-organ failure.

Aims & Objectives: To evaluate whether Procalcitonin can act as a biomarker for risk stratification and identify patients at risk for clinical deterioration-critical disease.

Study Design: This was a prospective cohort study.

Place and Duration of Study: Medical High Care & Intensive Care Unit at University Hospital Ayr, UK between January 2021, and March 2021.

Methodology: The patients were classified into two groups, Low Procalcitonin (PCT) group (<0.5 μg/L) and High Procalcitonin (PCT) group (>0.5 μg/L) at 48 hr. of admission to the unit. Primary outcomes compared were requirement of invasive ventilation, multi-organ failure, antibiotic consumption, and mortality. Continuous variables were analyzed using two-sample unpaired t test while categorical variables were compared using Fisher’s exact test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: A total of 40 COVID-19 patients were included in the study, with 23 patients in the low PCT group and 17 patients were included in the high PCT group. The mean PCT at 48 hrs in the low PCT group was 0.327±0.098 μg/L, whereas in the high PCT group, it was 2.862±1.409 μg/L, the differences being statistically significant (p<0.0001). 56.52% patients(n=13) had multi-organ failure & mortality remained 26.09% in the Low PCT group whereas 94.12% of the patients (n=16) developed multi-organ failure & the mortality was 70.59% in the high PCT group, differences being statistically significant. Also, significant differences were noted in the usage of antibiotics between the two groups.

Conclusion: We concluded that Procalcitonin levels could be used reliably for risk stratification and raised PCT values would help identify a subgroup of COVID-19 patients with increased likelihood of critical disease and poor outcome.

Open Access Original Research Article

High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Evaluation of Pulmonary Manifestations in Patients with Autoimmune Diseases

Marina Sherif Fouad Habib, Rania Sobhy Mohamed Abo Khadra, Rasha Lotfy Younis, Mohamed Fouad Sherif

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 41-51
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2022/v34i1731415

Background: The systemic immune system afflictions can reason very a couple of pneumonic parenchymal, vascular, aviation route, and pleural anomalies. The highlight thoracic signs of those afflictions are incited through the basic immune system prepare.

Aim of the Work: Evaluation of the radiological findings on HRCT of the lung in patients with autoimmune diseases was the aim of this research

Methods: This retrospective cross- sectional research was conducted on 25 cases (18 female and 7 male) ranging from 20-80 years old with autoimmune diseases proved by laboratory and clinical finding attending Tanta university Hospitals. Our patients were referred from chest department to Radiology department (CT units) at Tanta University Hospitals. The period of this research was from May 2020 to May 2021.

Results: Chest complications are common among autoimmune patients, the most frequent chest manifestations were fatigue followed by dyspnea representing 72% and 60% respectively,  40% of patients were presented with cough, The presence of clubbing and weight loss in autoimmune individuals with chest manifestations is frequent representing about (24% and 16%) respectively.

Conclusion: For evaluation of patients with connective tissue diseases of chest manifestations (pain, shortness of breath, cough), HRCT is the imaging technique of choice), According to HRCT, ground glass opacities was the most prevalent chest findings representing 56%, followed by consolidation and bronchiectasis representing 28% and lastly pericardial effusion represents 4%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Thoracic Involvement in Polyangiitis Granulomatosis: A Moroccan Series of 21 Case

H. Benjelloun, H. Anniche, W. Jalloul, N. Zaghba, K. Chaanoun, N. Yassine

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 17-23
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2022/v34i1731416

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis, formerly known as Wegener's disease, is a severe systemic necrotizing vasculitis, associating an inflammation of the vascular wall with a peri and extravascular granulomatosis. It is a rare disease that affects small vessels.it is classically translated by an otorhinolaryngological, respiratory and renal involvement. Other systemic manifestations of vasculitis may also be present.of slow evolution, the disease is often misleading and difficult to diagnose.The aim of our work is the analysis of the clinico-radiological thoracic and extra-thoracic manifestations, as well as the therapeutic and evolutionary profile in a retrospective study of a series of 22 cases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Outcome of Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis for Comminuted Diaphyseal Humeral Fractures

Ahmad Al Shamy, El Sayed El Forse, Ashraf Mahmoud, Osama Amin

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 52-62
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2022/v34i1731417

Aims: To examine the clinical outcomes of the minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis technique for comminuted diaphyseal humeral fractures based on clinical and radiologic records.

Study Design:  Prospective study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried on twenty-one adult patients with comminuted humeral shaft fracture treated with MIPO between February 2020 to February 2021 were included in this study.

Methods: Patients with pathological fracture, Gustilo and Anderson type 2 or 3, intra-articular fracture and preoperative radial nerve palsy were excluded. The surgery time, blood loss and time of union were noted. Clinical outcome was assessed by Q-DASH score.

Results: We had thirteen cases of 12-B type and eight cases of 12-C type of fracture. According to Q-DASH score, eighteen cases had satisfactory results. The mean radiological fracture union time was 13.85 weeks. Mean elbow flexion was 1250, mean extension range was -2.140. out of all cases, two cases had superficial wound infection. One patient had iatrogenic radial nerve palsy. One patient had non-union.

Conclusion: Although technically demanding, MIPO technically should be considered one of the management options in the treatment of complex humeral diaphyseal fractures as it adheres to biological fixation principles with minimal soft tissue dissection, preserving fracture hematoma and periosteal blood supply.

Open Access Review Article

Iron Deficiency Anemia among Women of Reproductive Age

Marwa Neshnash, Muhammad Usman

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 24-30
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2022/v34i1731413

Background:  Iron deficiency anemia is a significant global public health concern that can lead to a decline in mental and physical performance and mortality among women of reproductive age.

Objective: The goal of this literature review is to review and integrate information from the literature on the prevalence, etiology, consequences, and treatment options associated with iron deficiency anemia.

Review: Prevalence of iron deficiency anemia is high among women of reproductive age especially in low-income countries such as African and Asian countries compared to high-income countries. This could be due to differences in topographical, dietary, and cultural factors. Additionally, iron deficiency can be caused by poor absorption of iron or decreased iron intake. Poor absorption can occur as a side effect of different medications, while decreased iron intake could be the result of a diet high in legumes but low in protein and fruits. Moreover, iron deficiency anemia can be caused by persistent diseases, infections, increased demand during pregnancy, and obesity. If left untreated, the consequences of iron deficiency anemia include low quality of life, poor mental and physical health, a decline in work performance, and increased comorbidities. The current mainstay of treatment for iron deficiency anemia includes oral iron administration, parenteral iron administration, and blood transfusion.

Conclusion: Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most common health care issues among women of reproductive age. Different factors like blood loss, distant health care facilities, and poor diet can all influence the iron status in women of reproductive age. If left untreated, anemia can cause a variety of negative consequences, which can be avoided by implementing timely, cost-effective therapies.