Open Access Original Research Article

Association of the +936 C/T Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of the VEGF-A Gene with Renal Cell Cancer in an Eastern Indian Population

Anindya Dasgupta, Subhrajyoti Dasgupta, Debabrata Samanta, Angshuman Ashu, Dilip Karmakar

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i730306

Aims: Renal cell cancer is one of the major killer cancers affecting mankind. Various polymorphisms in different genes have been found to be associated with the disease. +936 C/T SNP in the VEGF gene has been reported to be associated with spread of metastasis in several parts of the world. In the present study, we decided to study its association with renal cell cancer in the Eastern Indian population.

Study Design: A hospital based cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: A tertiary care medical college & hospital in Kolkata, West Bengal having study duration of one year from January 2018 to January 2019.

Methodology: DNA was extracted from whole blood using phenol chloroform extraction method from 30 case and 40 control subjects. A section of the VEGF-A gene consisting of the base pair where the SNP occurs and small regions adjacent to it was then amplified from the genomic DNA by PCR. The PCR product was treated with restriction enzyme HinDIII and the restriction digestion pattern was analysed.

Results: In our results, the prevalence of the wild C and the mutant T alleles in the study group were found to be 60% and 40% respectively. The prevalence of the homozygous non-mutant (CC), heterozygous (CT) and the homozygous mutant (TT) genotypes were found to be 45%, 30% and 25% respectively.

Conclusion: It is likely that there is a significant association between the +936 C/T SNP and renal cell cancer in the Eastern Indian population. Also, majority of the renal cell cancer patients from this region are prone to worse cancer prognosis and therefore may need a more active medical management including anti VEGF therapy. Further studies are required to confirm the association and to determine its nature.

Open Access Original Research Article

Skin Cancer Screening Makes It Possible to Detect Dysplastic Lesions and Significantly Reduce the Progression to Malignant Melanoma

Khashayar Ghiassi

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i730307

This study takes a look at cultural practices around the world in terms of how they relate to being a contributing cause of malignant melanoma due to perceptions of skin colour and accepted tanning practices. This paper examines the effects of UV radiation in great detail and reviews skin cancer as a serious health risk due to overexposure and other factors. As part of the review of this global health threat, the demographic distribution of people who suffer from melanoma is also discussed. Currently, women between 31 and 50 years old are at the highest risk of developing skin cancer and, therefore, must be screened to reduce that risk, particularly given that malignant melanoma is better managed with earlier screening practices in middle-aged adults.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perceived Indigenous Perspectives of Maternal Health Care Services among Women of Marakwet, Kenya

Solomon Kemoi Cheboi, Anastasiah Nyamilu Kimeu, Kenneth Kibaara Rucha

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i730309

Background: Recognition of the vulnerabilities and differentials in maternal indicator is a pressing concern throughout safe motherhood literature. Uptake of skilled delivery by women in Marakwet remain 44%, compared to the national rate of 68%. Accountability for improving maternal indicators calls for interrogation of indigenous practices to amend complex social causes.

Methods: This was a qualitative study conducted in the thirteen patrilineal clans of Marakwet.  Discussants were women of reproductive age while key informants included cultural anthropologist, traditionalist and gatekeepers. The data was analyzed manually through a process of data reduction, organization and emerging patterns interpretation then sub categories.

Results: Pregnancy and delivery are not just biomedical process but culturally biosocial practice. Discipline and socialization are critical elements. Adequate self, family and community care lead to noble pregnancy outcome. The community and midwife uses knowledge to jumpstart childbirth practices for expectant women for healthy prenatal period, delivery and postnatal running.  Holiness and hygiene, controlled sex and sexual relationships, artefacts and dressing, food ways and diet, social interaction, livelihoods and lifestyle are key pregnancy and childbirth social aetiology.

Conclusion: cultural stimuli and remedies inform maternal health seeking behaviour and practices of women. Continued care, hygiene, geophagy, controlled food ways and social interaction as well as avoiding heavy duties and events that trigger emotions and pressure are sound indigenous ways of improving maternal and child health. However, norms such as visiting a midwife for pregnancy confirmation and massage as well as folk activities such as the use of charms and repertoires for protection and cleansing ceremonies provide false protection.

Recommendation: the results suggest the relative value for indigenous maternal health care services in enhancing client centered delivery health services. Review of policies and programs to integrate harmless indigenous practices into maternity care services may promote quality, satisfaction and uptake of facility based childbirth services.

Open Access Original Research Article

Androgenic Effects of Cinnamomum camphora in Male Sprague-dawley Rats

O. H. Ayoade, G. G. Akunna, F. I. Duru

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i730310

This study evaluated camphora-induced androgenic and histopathological changes in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Thirty-five animals weighing 200 g±20 g were used for this study and randomly divided equally into five groups, with seven rats in each group. Group A animals (normal control group) were served water and rat chow only; Groups B-D (treatment groups) were orally administered camphora in doses of 1 g/kg (Low-dose), 2 g/kg (Medium-dose) and 4 g/kg (High-dose) respectively while Group E (vehicle group) were orally administered 6 mL/kg olive oil (a solvent for camphora) per day for 56 days. There was a significant decrease (P< .05) in activity levels of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH); Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) when the treatment was compared with the control group. Also, a significant decrease (P< .05) in activity level of FSH was observed when the Medium-dose group was compared with Low-dose group. Insignificant irregular pattern in activity level of Testosterone was observed across the treatment groups when compared with the control. However, a significant increase (P< .05) in activity level of Testosterone was observed when the High-dose group was compared with the Medium-dose group. There was a significant increase (P< .05) in activity levels of Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) when the treatment was compared with the control group. Semen analysis showed reduction in sperm concentration, motility and morphology with increasing concentration of camphora. Significant decrease was recorded in testicular weight when High-dose group was compared to Control and Low-dose groups. Histopathological changes were seen in the testes of the camphor administered groups, ranging from mild disintegrated interstitial tissues in Low-dose to severe degeneration and disintegration of both seminiferous and interstitial tissues in the testes in the Medium-dose and High-dose groups. In conclusion, camphora had androgenic and toxic effects on testis and may cause testicular tissue damage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Two Mouth Rinses in Reducing Aerosol Bacterial Load during Ultrasonic Scaling

Angabeen Anjum, Mervyn Hosein, Saima Akram Butt, Fakhuruddin ., Bina Fawad, Fizza Abidi

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i730311

Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of two mouth washes namely Chlorhexidine 0.2% and 5% green tea mouth rinse when used as pre-procedural rinses in reducing the number of CFU in aerosol generated during ultrasonic scaling.

Study Design:  Quasi experimental study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Periodontology, Ziauddin college of Dentistry, Ziauddin University, Karachi, between January 2019 to August 2019.

Methodology: 70 subjects were recruited in this study (43 males, 27 females: age range 18-65 years with presence of minimum 20 permanent functional teeth, less than 5 mm mean probing depth and plaque and gingival score between 1-3.

Subjects were randomly divided into two groups, group 1 and group 2. Each group comprised of 35 patients. A split mouth design technique was used for collecting the aerosol samples on blood agar plates. For every patient, there was a control side and test side of mouth. Ultrasonic scaling was done on control side without pre procedural rinsing and vice versa. Group 1 used 0.2% Chlorhexidine while group 2 rinsed with 5% green tea mouthwash. The blood agar plates were then transported to Microbiology lab and incubated for counting the colony forming units (CFU).

Results: Significant reduction of CFU occurred with pre procedural rinsing with both mouthwashes as compared to non-rinsing before ultrasonic scaling and 0.2% Chlorhexidine found to be superior to 5% green tea in reducing bacterial load in aerosol samples

Conclusion: Pre procedural mouth rinsing with effective mouthwashes significantly reduces aerosol contamination and should be used before all dental procedures that results in formation of aerosols and splatters along with some other infection control protocol to minimize the risks of cross infection in clinical settings.