Open Access Original Research Article

Adolescent Obesity and Overweight Prevalence amongst Urban Population of Pakistan

Zulfiqar Khosa, M. Yaseen Bazai, Tariq Mehmood, Mukhtar Mehboob, Muhammad Zubair, Mehwish Sharif, Hamaiyal Sana, Sania Murad

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i530296

Background: Adolescent obesity is a worldwide threatening health challenge. Current study was designed to assess the obesity and overweight occurrence in adolescent age groups of 12-18 years pertaining to high and low income groups of the city of Quetta Pakistan.

Methods and Results: A total of 2000 school children were investigated and classified into 1088 High Income Category (HIC) and 912 Low Income Category (LIC). Obesity and overweight were reviewed by using Body Mass Index (BMI) and Triceps Skin Fold Thickness (TSFT) specifying age and sex values for adolescents. By using BMI as the core value, occurrence of obesity and overweight remained as 1.3% to 0.5% in LIC respectively. And in HIC the obesity and overweight percentile remained 3.3% and 1.5% respectively (p<0001). While using TSFT criteria, the obesity and overweight occurrence in LIC was 0.4% and 0.4% and in HIC the obesity and overweight assessments were 1.4% and 0.7% respectively (p˂0001). Current study presented that obesity and overweight occurrence found higher in HIC compared to LIC adolescent age groups. This emphasizing the possibilities based on modified pattern of dietary habits and physical activities with mount in income height.

Conclusions: Socioeconomic condition matters in pattern of obesity and overweight amongst adolescent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Presentation, Characteristics and Co-morbidities of Men with Prostate Cancer in Nigeria

Chimaobi Gideon Ofoha, Felix Echebiri Magnus

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i530297

Aims: To determine the presentation, characteristics and associated co-morbidities in Nigerian men with prostate cancer.

Study Design: Retrospective study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried at the Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria from January 2010 to December 2018.

Methodology: Men with histologically confirmed prostate cancer were analyzed. The age of the men, PSA pattern, histologic type, Gleason score, stage of the disease, associated co-morbidities and treatment received by the men were recorded. The effect of co-morbidities on disease aggressiveness using Gleason score and PSA as determinants was determined using Pearson correlation. SPSS version 23 was used in analyzing the data.  P-value of < 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: Eighty-one patients with prostate cancer from 2010 to 2018 were involved in the study. The mean age was 67.58±9.42 years with a range of 42 to 96years.  Men with PSA >100 ng/ml had the highest frequency (34.60%). The mean Gleason Score was 6.28±2.13. Gleason score 7-8 had the highest frequency (35.8%). Seventy-nine patients (97.5%) had adenocarcinoma. Eighty-one percent of the men had advanced Pca, 58% being metastatic disease. 48.1% had co-morbidities, 39.5% had hypertension, while 8.6% had both hypertension and diabetes. Comorbidities showed no correlation with PSA level (r=0.346), (p-value 0.375) and Gleason score (r=0.194), (p-value 0.639). Seventy-nine percent of the men had androgen deprivation therapy.

Conclusion: Most of the men presented with advanced disease, with all indices pointing towards lethal disease. The commonest co-morbidity was hypertension and co-morbidities had no relationship with the aggressiveness of prostate cancer. To ensure early presentation and prevent lethal forms of Pca, health education, screening, counselling for men in the high-risk group is paramount.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Childhood Obesity among Primary School Students at Taif Governorate, Saudi Arabia

Rasheed Ali AlGhamdi

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i530299

Background: Obesity in children is rapidly emerging as a global epidemic that will have profound public health consequences as overweight children become overweight adults particularly if obesity is present in adolescence.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children between 6-12 years (males and females) at Taif primary schools and determine the associated dietary risk factors for overweight and obesity.

Methods: A cross sectional analytic study was implemented included a representative sample of primary school students (boys and girls) enrolled in governmental schools in Taif, Saudi Arabia, 2014-2015. Data were collected by using valid self-administered questionnaire, with family help. It including socio-demographic characteristics and detailed dietary history. Body mass index-for-age percentiles of CDC were utilized in this study to diagnose obesity.

Results: Among schoolboys, the prevalence of overweight was 10.7%, while prevalence of obesity was 7.6%; the problem seemed to be worse in girls, where the prevalence of overweight and obesity were 16.8% and 18.2%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that girls were al almost double risk for developing overweight/obesity compared to boys ((aOR=1.93; 95%CI: 1.03-3.60, p<0.05). Habit of eating cheeps potatoes at school at abnormal rate was associated with almost three-folded risk for obesity or overweight compared to eating cheeps potatoes within normal (aOR=3.14; 95%CI: 1.17-8.41). School children who had the habit of taking fast foods at least three times/week were more likely to develop obesity or overweight compared to those who did not take fast foods (aOR=1.98; 95%CI:1.08-6.30).

Conclusions: Overweight and obesity among primary school children in Taif city, Saudi Arabia is a public health problem affecting more than one-third of girls and almost one fifth of boys. It confirms the significant association between some unhealthy dietary habits and increase prevalence of childhood obesity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Attitude, Awareness and Experience of Women towards the Breast Self-examination in Saudi Arabia

Nisar Haider Zaidi, Fatma K. Althoubaity

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i530300

Objective: To evaluate the attitude, awareness and experience of Women towards the breast self-examination.

Methods: This is population-based study with the total number of the participants were 349 between 25-70 yrs of age, between December 2017 to February 2018 at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah. A questionnaire was given to females attending the clinic or attending a lecture for breast cancer awareness.

Results: A total of 349 patients were studied. Saudi was 76.5% and non-Saudi was 23.5%. Patients less than 25 years were 26.4% and above 25 years were 73.6%. The majority were between 25 to 45 years of age which was 66.4%. The majority were married 64.5%, single 30.4%, widow 2.9% and divorced were 2.3%. 65% had children and 59.3% did lactate their kids. Use of contraceptive pills was 50.4%. Family history of breast cancer was in 18.1% and sister had breast cancer in 3.46%, aunt 3.7%, stepdaughter in 6%, grandmother in 3.2% and mother in 2% of cases. Smokers were 10.6%. Family history of other malignancy was in 9.7% with colon cancer in 6.3% and uterus in 3.4%.

History of taking herbs was in 14.6% of cases of which soya in 3.4%, baboon 2.6%, green tea 2.3%, ginger 2.3% and weight lowering herbs 1.7%. 12.3% of patient had breast biopsy and 12% had another tumour like thyroid, uterus, colon etc. 22.1% admitted that they did self- breast examination. Their source of knowledge about breast self-examination was Television in 13.5%, hospital 5.7% and doctor in 2.9%. Routine clinical examination was done in 82.2% and the reason for it was not known to the majority of them. Examination by doctors was done in 25.5% of cases. Mammography was done by 16.9%, ultrasound in 16.9%. 12.3% preferred mammography. Regarding the belief that biopsy will lead to spreading of the tumour, 16.3% said that they believe it. 3.4% believed that cancer is infective disease and 86.2% believed that breastfeeding decreases breast cancer incidence.

Conclusions: Breast self-examination is an effective tool to detect early breast cancer especially in poor and underdeveloped countries which lack resources for proper screening of breast cancer. Cultural beliefs and ritual practices may affect early detection of breast cancer.

Open Access Review Article

Epidemiological Distribution of Different Vibrio cholerae Strains Causing Cholera Disease in Endemic Countries: A Review

Tarh Jacqueline Ebob

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i530298

Cholera is an acute severe watery diarrhoeal disease caused by a toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae. Significant clinical presentations characteristic of this disease include; asymptomatic intestinal colonization, accompanied by rapid fluid and electrolyte loss, cholera sicca (unusual accumulation of fluid in the intestinal lumen leading to circulatory collapse and death), significant hypovolemia and electrolyte abnormalities, abdominal pain and discomfort, borborygmi, and vomiting. However, diagnostic pointers like hypokalemia, hypo or hypernatremia, isonatremic dehydration, hypocalcemia, and acidosis may be seen. Yet, in complicated cases, Kidney failure with acute tubular necrosis due to anuria, low glycogen, inadequate gluconeogenesis, severe hypoglycemia, coma (in rare occasions), chronic enteropathy, malnutrition and pneumonia in children may occur. Since man is the natural host of this pathogenic bacterium (Vibio cholera), which he sheds into the environment through faeces or vomitus, its eradication has become difficult especially from their natural warm aquatic environmental reservoirs. The association of this disease with drinking water, and food, has been traced to the pollution of water sources (wells, rivers, streams and ponds) as well as food sources like vegetables (from gardens which are watered with sewage contaminated water from the environment). Cholera has become a night mare especially in continents like Asia and Africa, which lack adequate healthcare facilities and infrastructures. These areas represent the most endemic regions of the nearly 50 countries recorded to be endemic to cholera in the world. The World Health Organization reports that only an estimated 5–10% of the actual case number are officially reported annually worldwide. This review attempts to describe the epidemiological distribution of the various strains of Vibrio cholerae causing epidemics all over the globe.