Open Access Original Research Article

Circadian Rhythm of Oral Temperature in Adult Hyperthyroids, Sudan

Ishag Ibrahim Gumma Sheriff, Hamid Gad Elmoula Mohamed Salim

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i330286

Introduction:  A 24 hours long cyclic change in body temperature, ie. body temperature circadian rhythm is used as a marker of other body circadian rhythms.

Objectives: To determine circadian rhythm in oral temperature of adult hyperthyroids at Nyala and Alfashir- western cities, Sudan.

Study Design: A descriptive cross-sectional of stratified random sampling.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Gezira University, Wadmadani, Sudan, from December 2006 to March 2007.

Methodology: A sample of thirty clinically diagnosed thyrotoxic cases (females = 29, and a male) of age ranging from 18 to 50 years, attended to Sudanese atomic energy corporation (SAEC) for receiving positively confirmed laboratory tests were enrolled to conduct this study. Early morning and late evening oral temperatures were recorded by the mercury-in-glass thermometer. A questionnaire was used to exclude any other fever conditions. Thyroid hormones, ie. T3, T4, and TSH levels were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) at SAEC of Nyala with reference ranges 0.4 - 4.4 mIU/L, 0.69 - 2.02 nmol/L, and 50 - 150 nmol/L for TSH, T3, and T4 respectively. Subjects of T3 and T4 values above reference ranges with TSH below reference were considered hyperthyroid. The obtained data were analyzed statistically by the statistical package for the social science programme (SPSS), ie. T-test.

Results: Mean oral temperature and circadian rhythm were found to be 37.25 ± 0.34ºC and 0.43 ± 0.30ºC respectively. The effect of sex on mean oral temperature was statistically significant (p = 0.01), whereas age did not show any statistical effect (p = 0.36).

Conclusion: The decreased oral temperature circadian rhythm of thyrotoxic patients, confirms that other body functions also abnormally affected when body temperature circadian rhythm is abnormal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Geometry Variation on the Mechanical Behavior of the Proximal Femur

Amirhossein Borjali, Mahdi Mohseni, Su Mei Van, Mahmoud Chizari

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i330287

The mechanical behavior of a proximal femur under a normal body weight loading was examined. The geometry of the proximal femur was created in a finite element model using 29 reference points measured on the CT scan images of a patient. Four additional sets of measurements were calculated using ± (1) and ± (2) the standard deviation of the original set and the result of models was compared. The stress distribution and the locations of critical normal and shear stress, as well as the effect of the femur geometry which may be most susceptible to failure were examined. The findings of this study demonstrate an inferior distribution of stress in the plus-standard deviation models and indicate less ability to bear weight. The minus-standard deviation models appear to be better suited to bearing weight and indicate a more even distribution of the stresses generated within the proximal femur.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Relationship between Thyroid Gland Volume and Anthropometric Indices

A. J. Salaam, S. M. Danjem, A. A. Salaam, H. A. Angba, P. O. Ibinaiye

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i330288

Objective: To sonographically determine the thyroid gland volume in normal adults in Jos University Teaching Hospital, as well as how it relates to anthropometric factors.

Background: The thyroid gland is one of the largest endocrine glands in the body weighing about 10-25g.  It regulates the rate of metabolism and controls the growth and rate of function of many other systems in the body. These it does, by producing thyroid hormones, principally thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The accurate estimation of the size of the thyroid is very important for the evaluation and management of thyroid disorders. Thus, knowing the normal size in a geographic location would form a baseline for detecting abnormalities. Ultrasonography is a cheap, readily available, easy to perform and non-invasive method to image the thyroid gland, hence its use in this resource-limited setting.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of sonographic measurement of thyroid gland volume on 400 normal (healthy) adults in Jos, Plateau State, Northern part of Nigeria. All examinations were performed using LOGIC 5, a real-time ultrasound machine using a 10MHZ linear transducer and ultrasound transmission gel to act as a coupling gel. Measurements of each lobe and isthmus were obtained in longitudinal (length), transverse (width) and depth(breath) in centimetres (cm). Blood samples were taken for thyroid function tests. The weight and heights were obtained. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using SPSS software version 17. The results were presented in forms of tables, graphs and chart.

Results: The mean thyroid volume for males   6.03 cm3±2.22 was higher than that of females 5.62 cm3±2.14. The mean right lobe volume (RLV) was 3.09 cm3±1.47 and that of males and females were 3.16 cm3 ±1.34 and 3.04 cm3 ±1.55 respectively. The mean left lobe volume (LLV) was 2.69 cm3 ± 1.37 and that of males and females were 2.89 cm3±1.32 and 2.57 cm3±1.39 respectively. The right lobe volume was significantly greater than the left lobe(p=0.000). The total mean isthmus volume was 0.27 cm3±0.31. The mean isthmus volume in males 0.3±0.28 is significantly higher than that of females 0.24±0.23 (p=0.025). The BMI increases in females with increasing age. BMI and BSA are higher in males.

Conclusion: The volume obtained in this study was slightly lower than those reported by previous studies in Nigerian adults. The right lobe volume was higher than that of the left and the volume was higher in males compared to females. Anthropometric parameters were noted to affect the thyroid volume.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characteristic Features of Biochemical Indicators of Mixed Saliva in Patients with Chronic Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis

Nazira N. Khabibova

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i330289

Chronic recurrent aphthous stomatitis (CRAC) is a chronic disease of the oral mucosa, characterized by periodic remissions and exacerbations with the eruption of aft. According to WHO, it affects up to 20% of the population. Currently, most scientists are inclined to the leading role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of the disease. It has been established that with increasing severity of the disease T-suppression of immunity increases, which is characterized by a decrease in the number of T-lymphocytes and their functional activity. The increase in the number of T-suppressor cells accompanied by a decrease in the number of T-helper cells. The severity and duration of the disease correspond to the severity of the sensitization of the body with these antigens. The work was carried out based on scientific-educational practical dental center at the Bukhara State Medical Institute of Therapeutic Dentistry. A clinical examination of 67 patients aged 25–35 years with chronic recurrent aphthous stomatitis was conducted, 14 healthy individuals were included in the control group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Eat Fast, Die Young: The Pattern of Fast Food Consumption amongst International Medical Students

Shantosh Kalidass, Fatin Aizaa Binti Azhar, Gan Ann Zee, Muhamad Noor Zuhairi Bin Noor Hasani, Madhura T. K., S. B. Javali, P. A. Patil

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i330290

Objective: To investigate the factors influencing fast-food consumption amongst the International Medical Students of USM-KLE.

Hypothesis: Fast food consumption is deleterious to the overall health of a person, and thus we expect low fast food consumption amongst medical students of USM-KLE. Nevertheless, due to the lack of awareness and poor understanding of the ill effects of fast food consumption, the pattern of fast food consumption is increasing among the medical students of USM-KLE.

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey-based study was conducted in the month of June 2018 by distributing questionnaires to 326 Malaysian students –from year 1 to year 5 – who are studying in Belgaum, India. The questions touched on the aspects of their profile, driving factors of fast food consumption, routine exercise pattern, and their knowledge on the deleterious effects of fast food on their health. Data was collected for their experience both in Malaysia & India, & these were then analysed using SPSS 16.0 software.

Results: In this study, the results were coded & translated according to each question. It is observed that there is a high prevalence of fast food consumption amongst the students; 97% of the students consume fast food.

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that despite their knowledge on the poor health effects of these foods. the students prefer to consume fast food mostly on the basis of their hectic schedule, the restaurants’ close distance, the good taste of the meals, as well as their fast availability.