Open Access Case Report

Heterotopic Gastric Mucosa in the Gallbladder Simulating a Tumor: A Case Report

Taoufik Elabbassi, Yassine Fakhri, Abdessamad Elazhary, M. Rachid Lefriyekh

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i130279

Heterotopia is defined as an ectopic localization of normal tissue; the heterotopia of the gastric mucosa can be observed all along the digestive tract. The localization in the gallbladder is exceptional. The diagnosis is histological, it may present some complications including ulceration and the risk of malignancy.

We report the case of heterotopia of the gastric mucosa in the gallbladder while presenting the clinical, radiological and therapeutic features of this exceptional lesion.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gordon Dry Gin (Moringa Citrus Blend) Induce Adenomatous Hyperplasia in Female Sprague Dawley Rats

E. U. Eric, T. O. Alade, E. F. Eruvwahwe

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i130276

Objectives: This study aim to investigate the histopathological effects of binge consumed Gordon’s dry gin moringa citrus blend on the uterus of adult female dawley Sprague rats.

Materials: Fifty female rats (weighing range; 120±2.6 g - 250±3.5 g) were divided into four groups (A, B and C & D). Group A, B, C (15 animals each) were orally administered with Gordon’s dry gin moringa citrus blend, 43% ethanol, and 200 mg/kg moringa extract, respectively, while Group D (5 animals) did not receive any treatment and was used as negative control. In groups A, B, and C, five animals were sacrificed on the 7th, 14th and 21st day of administration, whereas animals of group D were sacrificed on day 21. The uterus of each rat was harvested, processed and stained with haematoxylin and eosin solution for histological analysis.

Results: Results of the study revealed histological alterations in the uterus of treated animals. Such alterations include adenomatous hyperplasia and cystic hyperplasia.

Conclusion: The oral administration of gordon’s dry gin moringa citrus and moringa extract at 200 mg/kg induced cystic and adenomatous hyperplasia in rat uterus, inferring that both gordon dry gin and moringa might yield antifertility activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of People towards Onchocerciasis among Local People Living in Tafa Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria

J. L. Ibrahim, T. Andrew, M. A. Kugama, M. I. Daudu, T. Tese, U. B. Musa

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i130277

The study is aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitude and practice of people in Ija-Gwari and Kofa in Niger State towards onchocerciasis, structured questionnaires were administered to 300 respondents comprising 150 from each of the village, which is about 5% of the total population size of the two villages. The sampling technique used to administer the questionnaire was systemic sampling method. In Kofa and Ija-Gwari village, a high proportion 74 (49.3%) and 80 (53.3%) respectively thought it was both a blood and an eye infection while few of the respondents 8 (5.3%) and 2 (1.45%) respectively claimed to have no idea of river blindness. In Kofa village, out of 150 respondents, 146 (97.3%) said they accepted taking the drug and 4 (2.7%) did not accept taking the drug. In Ija-Gwari village out of 150 respondents, 144 (95.9%) said they accepted taking the drug and 6 (4.1%) did not accept taking the drug. In Kofa village, out of the 150 respondents, 148 (98.7%) use ivermectin as the type of treatment, while In Ija-Gwari village, out of the 150 respondents 149 (99.3%) use ivermectin as the type of treatment. Since lack of knowledge perpetuates disease, appropriate health education strategy will be necessary to improve the situation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perception of Malaria Transmission and Preventive Strategies among Adolescents in Rivers State, South-South Nigeria

Nneka Gabriel-Job, Joyce Okagua

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i130278

Introduction: Malaria is a cause of mortality in African. Though preventable it has remained a public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa where more than 90% of all malaria cases occur. The study is intended to determine the perception of malaria transmission and prevention among adolescent in Rivers State.

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adolescents in secondary schools in Port Harcourt.  A Self-administered questionnaire was employed for data collection. Descriptive analysis was carried out. Comparing two mean was by t-test while test for significance was by chi square. In all a p value of ≤ 0.05 was regarded as significant.

Results: Results of the 969 subjects 445 (45.9%) were males while 524 (54.1%) were females. The mean age was 14.3 ± 1.2 years. All the respondent (100%) had heard of malaria, 957 (98.8%) were aware that mosquito was the vector, 923(95.3%) reported that the mode of transmission was through a bite by mosquito. Misconception regarding transmission of malaria was identified among 46(4.7%) participants. 760 (78.4%) of them possessed Insecticidal Treated Nets (ITN). Factors that enhanced ITN use among the respondents includes being a Junior student (p<0.001, OR=12.48, CI= 8.07-19.31), higher socioeconomic class (p<0.001, OR= 2.39, CI=1.71-3.33) while age and family size were not significantly associated.

Conclusion: Adolescents in Rivers State have considerable information on malaria transmission and prevention however utilization of ITN is poor. Health education is needed to enhance the use of ITN among adolescents in Rivers State.

Open Access Review Article

Geoengineering, Coal Fly Ash and the New Heart-Iron Connection: Universal Exposure to Iron Oxide Nanoparticulates

Mark Whiteside, J. Marvin Herndon

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i130280

Globally, air pollution is the leading environmental cause of human disease and death, and it is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease. Air pollution damages the cardiovascular system by oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and pro-thrombotic changes. Ultrafine particulate matter from the combustion of fossil fuels delivers the most potent and harmful elements of air pollution. Coal fly ash is a rich source of nano-sized metal, iron oxide, and carbonaceous particles. Previous findings revealed that coal fly ash is widely utilized in undisclosed tropospheric aerosol geoengineering.  Proper iron balance is central to human health and disease, and the harmful effects of iron are normally prevented by tightly controlled processes of systemic and cellular iron homeostasis. Altered iron balance is linked to the traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The iron-heart hypothesis is supported by epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies. Biogenic magnetite (Fe3O4) serves essential life functions, but iron oxide nanoparticles from anthropogenic sources cause disease. The recent finding of countless combustion-type magnetic nanoparticles in damaged hearts of persons from highly polluted areas is definitive evidence of the connection between the iron oxide fraction of air pollution and cardiovascular disease.  Spherical magnetic iron oxide particles found in coal fly ash and certain vehicle emissions match the exogenous iron pollution particles found in the human heart. Iron oxide nanoparticles cross the placenta and may act as seed material for future cardiovascular disease. The pandemic of non-communicable diseases like cardiovascular disease and also rapid global warming can be alleviated by drastically reducing nanoparticulate air pollution. It is crucial to halt tropospheric aerosol geoengineering, and to curb fine particulate emissions from industrial and traffic sources to avoid further gross contamination of the human race by iron oxide-type nanoparticles.