Open Access Case Report

Pleomorphic Adenoma of a Minor Salivary Gland of the Hard Palate Report of a Case

M. Chandra Sekhar, D. Ayesha Thabusum, M. Charitha, G. Chandrasekhar, K. Sai Dharani

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v30i530199

The pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign tumor of the minor salivary glands and is comprised of epithelial and mesenchymal tissues. The majority of the salivary gland tumors occur in the second decade of life with a slight predilection for females. Clinically it presents as a firm or rubbery submucosal mass without ulceration or surrounding inflammation. Diagnosis is established on the clinical examination and histopathology, supplemented with plane radiographs, computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging when necessary. Here, we report a case of pleomorphic adenoma of the hard palate in a 21-year-old female patient with a painless swelling in the left palatal region of nine months duration.

Open Access Commentary

The Significance of ‘Non-Significant’ Meconium Stained Amniotic Fluid (MSAF): Colour versus Contents

Mareike Bolten, Edwin Chandraharan

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v30i530192

The presence of ‘thin’ or ‘non-significant’ meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) is currently being considered by some intrapartum guidelines as ‘low risk’, requiring only an intermittent auscultation and not continuous electronic fetal heart rate monitoring using the cardiotocograph (CTG). Clinicians not only must exclude ‘non-physiological’ causes of MSAF but consider the potential effect of MSAF on fetal wellbeing, irrespective of whether the passage was secondary to a normal physiological process or due to an underlying pathology. Management decisions should be made based on the parity, rate of progress of labour, cervical dilatation at diagnosis, and observed CTG changes and the risk factors such as multiple pregnancy and intra-uterine growth restriction. Presence of any meconium within the amniotic fluid should be considered as an important intrapartum risk factor. The thin meconium may be ‘non-significant’ on visual inspection, but it is very significant from the point of view of a fetus, who is covered with toxic materials within the surrounding amniotic fluid.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation between Lycopene Intake and Blood Pressure in Healthy Adults from Celaya, Mexico

Dania Concepción Contreras-Ponce, Nicolas Padilla-Raygoza, Cuauhtemoc Sandoval-Salazar, Esther Ramirez-Moreno, Xochitl Sofia Ramirez-Gomez

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v30i530193

Aims: To identify if there is a correlation between lycopene intake and blood pressure levels in healthy adults of Celaya.

Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational, analytical study.

Place: All students registered at a public university in Celaya, Guanajuato, Mexico.

Methodology: To measure blood pressure, a humeral digital baumanometer with adult bracelet (Rossmax MG150f) was used. The measurement was performed three times with a two-minute interval and the average systolic and diastolic blood pressure was obtained. The daily intake of lycopene was evaluated with a questionnaire of the frequency of consumption of meals. The µg of lycopene were estimated with software related to the frequency of consumption of meals. Descriptive statistics were used for all variables. To identify the correlation and possible linear relationship between lycopene intake and blood pressure, Pearson r was calculated, linear regression equation, t-test, and P-value and Confidence Intervals at 95%.

Results: We included 446 participants (74.28% women, 25.78% men; between 18-51 years of age). The average systolic blood pressure was 108.30 mmHg, while the average diastolic blood pressure was 71.07 mmHg. The mean daily intake of lycopene was 6477.38 µg.  However, there was no correlation or lineal relationship between lycopene intake and the measurement of systolic blood pressure (P=.93) and diastolic blood pressure (P=.5).

Conclusion: No correlation was found between daily intake of lycopene and blood pressure (P> .05) in this adult sample from Celaya, Mexico. Studies should be conducted with a different way of determining the intake or level of lycopene in the body.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Diabetogenic Agent Streptozotocin on Hematological Parameters of Wistar Albino Rats “An Experimental Study”

Akhtar Ali, Shehla Shaheen, Zahida Memon, Faiza Agha, Moazzam Ali Shahid, Nisha Zahid

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v30i530194

Background: Diabetes mellitus has remained the major concern for medical sciences researches due to its deleterious effects on general, physical and mental health of patients. To understand the pathophysiology and to explore better treatment options for such kind of metabolic disorders it is necessary to generate the experimental animal models. To create diabetic animal models, streptozotocin has shown predominance in selectivity as a diabetogenic agent. While studying effects of any intervention in the diabetic animal models, being a cytotoxic drug streptozotocin may affect the study results by inhibiting highly replicating cells especially hematopoietic cells.

Aims: The aim of study was to analyze the effects of streptozotocin on various cellular components of blood such as RBCs, WBCs (Lymphocytes, Neutrophils, Eosinophils), Hb%, HCT and Platelets, at baseline, 5th day and 15th day without any intervention.

Study Design: Animal based Experimental study.

Place and duration of Study: The study was conducted at animal house of faculty of Pharmacy Ziauddin University Karachi, while laboratory work was performed at MDRL-1 Ziauddin University.

Methodology: In Group A normal saline and in group B and C 60 mg / kg streptozotocin diluted in normal saline was administered intraperitoneally. After the confirmation of induction of Diabetes in rats, on fifth day blood samples were drawn from Group A and B and were analyzed. While blood samples from group C were drawn on fifteenth day.

Results: Analysis of various hematological parameters on 5th day revealed that there was a decrease in the levels of Hb, HCT, RBCs and WBCs with an increase in platelet count in group B in comparison to group A (control). On the other hand, in Group C (15th day), blood cell counts (Hb, HCT, RBCs, WBCs, Lymphocytes, Neutrophils and platelets) seemed to recover from streptozotocin induced decline that was observed in group B, however did not reach the baselines as in group A(control).

Conclusion: It is concluded that change in hematological parameters of rats after administration of streptozotocin is reversible. The blood parameters may recover near to base line values without any intervention within two weeks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Placental Location, Blood Group, Genotype and Parity in Port Harcourt Women

K. S. Ordu, M. A. Amadi, M. C. Ogbonda

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v30i530195

Aim: Placental location affects the outcome of pregnancy. The influence of certain maternal factors on placental location is unknown. This study aimed at investigating the relationship between placenta location, maternal blood group, maternal genotype and parity among Port Harcourt women.

Methodology: The study was a retrospective study which investigated the Relationship Between Placental Location, Blood Group and Genotype in Port Harcourt Women in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. A survey of pregnant women from October 1, 2013, to September 30, 2017, as well as delivery of the pregnancy, was undertaken using medical records. 250 antenatal/post-natal medical records of parous women were randomly selected at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Placental locations were recorded. Each placenta was categorized as anterior, posterior and fundal. Lateral placentas located on the left or right portion of the anterior and posterior uterine walls were classified as anterior and posterior respectively. Data were also collected for other variables such as maternal blood group, genotype and parity.  

Results: Anterior placenta was predominant (47%) followed by the posterior placenta (45%) while Fundal was the least (8%). Majority of the women were of the O blood group (67.6%), blood group A (18%) was next, blood group B (13%) while AB (1.2%) was the least. Genotype AA was predominant (83.6%), followed by AS (15.6%) whereas genotype SS (0.8%) was the least. The distribution of parity showed that women who had given birth twice designated as Two were predominant (33.2%), followed by those who had given birth once designated as One, (30.8%), Three  (19.2%) while Four and above, (10.8%) were the least. The association between placenta location and blood group was not significant (p>0.05). Similarly, there was no significant association between placenta location and genotype (ρ>0.05). However, there was a significant association (p<0.05) between placenta location and parity.

Conclusion: Placental location had no association with blood group and genotype but was associated with parity.  There was an absence of a relationship between placental location and these factors. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Examining Our Laboratory Results Through Participation in Multinational Material Exchange Studies

G. A. Ebughe

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v30i530196

Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the quality of our tissue processing through participation a multicentre research programme as part of external quality control.

Study Design: A analytical retrospective study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathology University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, July 2019.

Methodology: An analytical study reviewing the performance of lymphoma tissue contributed to a Sub-Saharan African Lymphoma consortium study commissioned in 2008/2009 for which results were published in 2012. Twelve formalin fixed paraffin embedded lymphoma tissue were tested with a panel of 40 immunohistochemistry antibodies. The tissues were cut into 480 cores placed on slides before the test.

Results: The tissues were from 5 women and 7 men. The mean age was 37years, median age 45 years and modal age was 60 years. Twenty six percent of the sectioned cores lifted at test and could not therefore produce results. The reason for the lift off was tissue brittleness. Seventy four percent (74%) had intact cores on slides and produced a staining reaction although fragile antibodies like Ki 67 and bcl6 produced non reliable results while hardy antibodies like CD20 were more reliable.

Conclusion: The quality of histopathology biopsy results in the Department of Pathology University of Calabar teaching hospital needs to be improved. The strategies to achieve this involves the institution of continuous quality control and quality assurance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Breast Cancer Computer-aided Diagnosis System from Digital Mammograms

Abdulhameed Alkhateeb

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v30i530197

Recently, breast cancer is one of the most popular cancers that women could suffer from. The gravity and seriousness of breast cancer can be evidenced by the fact that the mortality rates associated with it are the second highest after lung cancer. For the treatment of breast cancer, Mammography has emerged as the one whose modality when it comes to the defection of this cancer is most effective despite the challenges posed by dense breast parenchyma. In this regard, computer-aided diagnosis (CADe) leverages the mammography systems’ output to facilitate the radiologist’s decision. It can be defined as a system that makes a similar diagnosis to the one done by a radiologist who relies for his/her interpretation on the suggestions generated by a computer after it analyzed a set of patient radiological images when making. Against this backdrop, the current paper examines different ways of utilizing known image processing and techniques of machine learning detection of breast cancer using CAD – more specifically, using mammogram images. This, in turn, helps pathologist in their decision-making process. For effective implementation of this methodology, CADe system was developed and tested on the public and freely available mammographic databases named MIAS database. CADe system is developed to differentiate between normal and abnormal tissues, and it assists radiologists to avoid missing breast abnormalities. The performance of all classifiers is the best by using the sequential forward selection (SFS) method. Also, we can conclude that the quantization grey level of (gray-level co-occurrence matrices) GLCM is a very significant factor to get robust high order features where the results are better with L equal to the size of ROI. Using an enormous number of several features assist the CADe system to be strong enough to distinguish between the different tissues.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolated from Out Patients Presenting with Urethral and Vaginal Discharges at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital

Judith Owokuhaisa, Joel Bazira

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v30i530198

Background: Gonococcus is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in developing countries and it has become a global health burden, hence a need for effective treatment. However, there is growing trend of antimicrobial resistant strains, in many parts of the world, to the previously effective antimicrobials thus creating serious health concerns.

Setting: Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital -South-Western Uganda.

Objectives: 1) To determine the prevalence of gonococcus among out patients presenting with urethral and vaginal discharges at MRRH.

2) To determine the level of antimicrobial resistance of gonococcus based on phenotypic methods at MRRH.

Design: The study was cross sectional and enrolled 189 participants presenting with urethral and vaginal discharges. The urethral and endo cervical swab samples collected were cultured on Chocolate media supplemented with 5%-10% carbondioxide in candle jar (inoculated plates were placed in a jar and a burning candle placed in the same jar, then closed, by the time the candle went off, that 5%-10% carbondioxide atmosphere would have been created). Isolates obtained were identified according to the laboratory standard operating procedures. Drug Sensitivity Test (DST) on confirmed Neisseria gonorrheae isolates was performed using the Kirby Bauer technique. The colonies of the test organism were emulsified in peptone water and then inoculated on prepared sterile chocolate agar and the following discs were applied to it (Ceftriaxone discs (30µg), Erythromycin (15ug), Ciprofloxacin (10ug) and Penicillin (10IU). The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24- 48 hours under 5% carbon dioxide atmospheres. The Zone of inhibition was seen around an antibiotic disc to which the organism was sensitive.

Results: Out of the 189 participants whose urethral swabs and Endo cervical swabs were cultured, 89 were positive cultures (47%), out of which 25 (28%) were found to have gonococcal infection, 64 (72%) patients had other micro-organisms. The prevalence of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae was 13%. In total, 4% of the isolates were resistant to Ceftriaxone, 28% to Ciprofloxacin, 68% to Erythromycin and 80% to Penicillin. A high percentage of resistance was observed against Penicillin (80%) and Erythromycin (68%).

Conclusion: Adults aged 18 years and above who present at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital with urethral or vaginal discharges are more likely to have a Neisseria gonorrhoeae which is resistant to Penicillin and Erythromycin.