Open Access Minireview Article

Effects of Alcohol on the Developing Brain: The Adolescent at Risk

Luiz Antonio Del Ciampo, Ieda Regina Lopes Del Ciampo

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v30i430186

Adolescence is a phase of great physical, emotional and social transformations that put individuals in vulnerability and with risks of aggravations that can be definitive. Among the various characteristics of the adolescent, the experimentation of new sensations and challenges is one of the most outstanding, being responsible for several common problems in this phase of life. Among the several factors that can adversely affect adolescents, alcohol is one of the most prevalent, offering serious immediate and late risks. This article presents some characteristics of alcohol consumption among adolescents and the effects on the development of the central nervous system, highlighting the main damages that can be caused in the brain in formation (reduced white matter volume and cortices, neuronal apoptosis, demyelination).  In view of the relevance of the effects of alcohol on the developing brain all efforts should be directed towards avoiding or minimizing the risks to which adolescents are subject. It also presents some measures that can be with the aim of preventing the consumption of alcohol among adolescents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Uptake and Barriers to Pap Smear Test among Female Workers in the Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

P. A. Awoyesuku, B. O. A. A. Altraide, D. A. MacPepple

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v30i430183

Background: Early screening for cervical cancer is a key intervention in reduction of maternal deaths. Health care workers have a significant role to improve cervical cancer screening practice among women. Their attitude and practice to such an issue might positively or negatively influence people they come into contact with.

Objective: To determine the knowledge, uptake and barriers to Pap smear test among female workers in the Rivers State University Teaching Hospital.

Methodology: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted between September and November 2015. A structured and pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data from 265 female hospital workers on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of Pap smear, attitude towards, as well as utilization of Pap smear test. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0.

Results: Of the 265 respondents, 237 (89.4%) were aware of Pap smear while 28 (10.6%) had no knowledge; of those that had knowledge only 40 (16.9%) had Pap smear test done at least once previously. There is significant difference in the knowledge of Pap smear among the professionals and those with tertiary education. Common sources of information about Pap smear were Books (58.2%) and Medical Workers (50.6%). Most common reason for not wanting to be screened was No interest (43.6%).

Conclusion: Although the knowledge of Pap smear is high, the uptake is low among hospital workers. To improve utilization, public health education on the need for health workers to take up screening is crucial as it will impact positively on the general populace.

Open Access Original Research Article

Giant Euthyroid Goitre: Clinical Profile as Seen in Otorhinolaryngology Department of a Tertiary Health Institution, in Northwestern Nigeria

Daniel Aliyu, Kufre Robert Iseh, Yikawe Stephen Semen, Stanley Baba Amutta, Joseph Hassan Solomon, Folusho Mercy Adeyeye

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v30i430184

Background: Goiter refers to a diffuse enlargement of thyroid gland. It has a high prevalence in adult population in endemic areas where iodized salt is not part of the regular diet.

Aim: We report the clinical profile of giant goiters seen in a tertiary hospital in Northwestern Nigeria.

Methods: A prospective study of all surgically operated cases of goiter carried out in a tertiary health hospital in Northwestern Nigeria, over a period of 6 years between January 2011 and December 2016. Bio data, duration of goiter, symptoms, geographical location, thyroid function tests, radiological reports and treatment were recorded and analyzed.

Results: Ninety-Seven patients were operated for goitre during the study period. Out of these 19 (19.6%) were giant goitres weighing between 900g-3200g. There were 13 (68.4%) females and 6 (31.6%) males with M: F ratio of 1:2.2. Age range was between 39 – 71 years with a mean age of 53.2 years. Prevalence was high in the 41-60 year age group. Duration of goiter in 13 (68.4%) of patients was between 11-20years. Retrosternal extension was observed in 7 (36.8%) patients. Tracheal deviation was the most common risk factor for respiratory complication in all the patients followed by tracheomalacia in 8(42.1%). Postoperative temporary Tracheostomy was carried out in 4(21.1%) of patients. Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury occurred in 2(10.5%). No mortality was recorded.

Conclusion: Respiratory complications are commonly associated with giant goiters, a pathology that is entirely preventive if diagnosed and managed at an early stage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association of Malaria Parasitaemia with ABO/Rhesus Blood Group among Out-patients of Township Clinic Gwagwalada Abuja, Nigeria

Binta Balarabe-Musa, H. R. Muhammad, H. Momo, F. A. Nnadike

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v30i430185

Aim: This study was carried out to determine association of malaria parasitaemia with ABO/Rhesus blood group.

Methodology: A total of 150 blood samples were randomly selected and examined for the presence of Plasmodium falciparum using microscopy, blood group was determined using agglutination technique.

Results: A total 92 (61.3%) were found to be infected with P. falciparum, the prevalence was highest among under five (0-10) than older groups, and higher among males 55 (63.2%) than female 37 (58.7%). Majority of the patients were rhesus positive 90(64.3%) while 2(20.0%) were rhesus negative. High percentage of blood group O, 70 (46.7%) was observed, followed by A 39(26.0%), B 34 (22.7%) and AB 7 (4.6%). All ABO blood groups showed varied presence of P. falciparum 51(72.8%), 22(56.4%), 17(50.0%) and 2(28.5%) for O, A, B and AB, respectively. Parasite density was also higher in blood group O 70 (41.69%), followed by B 34 (30.67%), and A 39 (28.09%) then AB 7 (16.84%).

Conclusion: It can be concluded that malaria parasitaemia is higher in males than female and in the younger ages than the older ones. Also Blood groups O are the most susceptible to malaria infection and AB are the least infected. However further investigation is needed to clearly establish the association ABO/Rhesus blood groups and P. falciparum infection and the need for intensified control methodology of the disease and education of the populace on the effect of rhesus negative cannot be over emphasized.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hyperemesis Gravidarum, Wernicke’s Encephalopathy and Korsakoff Syndrome Looked through the Lens of Three Cases, Paper II

Nasreen Khawer Salahuddin, Arindam Dutta, Naseem Akhtar Qureshi

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v30i430187

Objective: Pregnancy a normal physiological condition is worsened by morning sickness, nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, hyperemesis gravidarum, Wernicke’s encephalopathy and Korsakoff syndrome in vulnerable women with gestation. This report of three cases described hyperemesis gravidarum, Wernicke’s encephalopathy and Korsakoff syndrome in the worsening pregnancies.

Methods: Prospective collection of data concerning three pregnant patients seen in Dubai Health Care City, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

Results: All three patients were admitted to the hospital with manifestations of HG and WE and one of them showed additional features of Korsakoff syndrome. One patient developed intractable hyponatremia and central pontine myelinolysis. Two patients developed abortion while one patient's pregnancy ended with successful delivery with living infant. All patients were managed with thiamine, antiemetics, parenteral fluids and electrolytes and one patients required steroid therapy.

Conclusion: The findings of these cases are compatible with international literature on HG and its sequential syndromes. This study may enhance awareness of HG, WE and KS and also fill the knowledge gap of professionals providing services to women with worsening health during pregnancy in Arabian Gulf countries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Educational Intervention in Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Irma Aidé Barranco-Cuevas, Maria Jose Tamayo-Huerta, Karina Perdomo-Díaz, Yenni Espinosa-Gómez, Arturo García-Galicia, Eduardo Vázquez-Cruz, Akihiki Mizuki González-López, Ana Lourdes Pérez-Vázquez, Suemmy Gaytán-Fernández

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v30i430189

Objective: To identify the knowledge of Sexual Transmitted Diseases (STD) in adolescents before and after an educational intervention.

Study Design: Quasi-experimental, longitudinal study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in the Family Medicine Unite Number 6 of the Mexican Institute of Social Security, Puebla, Mexico during January to April in 2017.

Methodology: 151 patients were included in whom the knowledge level in sexual transmitted diseases were correlated. A study was used to measure the knowledge in the anatomy and sexual physiology, STDs prevention and ant conceptive. Central tendency and dispersion measures were employed for numeric variables and frequency (proportions) measures for categorical measures.

Results: A total of 151 adolescents with (58.9%) are female 17 years of age, 97.4% without partner and 74% without sex life. The knowledge after an educational intervention increased 10.6% in comparison to before the intervention. The statistical treatment was based on the Wilcoxon, resulting in a p=0.000.

Conclusion: The knowledge of STDs in adolescents increased after an educational intervention.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of PCOS with Associated Symptoms and Complications at Tertiary Care Hospital of Karachi

Urooj Zafar, Zahida Memon, Kausar Moin, Shanza Agha, Jahan Ara Hassan, Dabeeran Zehra

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v30i430190

Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of PCOS among different gynecological disorders at tertiary care hospital of Karachi and to assess the most frequent presenting complaint with associated complications among them.

Study Design: Single-centered cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Gynecological clinic of Karachi at a Tertiary care Hospital during 3rd December 2018 to 29th March 2019.

Methodology: Total 335 premenopausal women approached the clinic with different gynecological disorders during the period of four months and 305 patients agreed to participate. The patients were enrolled via convenient sampling technique. After taking the informed consent they were evaluated through clinical interviews, questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements. The diagnosis of PCOS was made by using Rotterdam criteria 2003. Menstrual irregularities were assessed via history. Clinical hyperandrogenism was evaluated by using modified Ferriman–Gallwey scale and Acne Global Grading System. Obesity was calculated through BMI. The Hamilton scale was used to appraise associated psychological disturbances.

Results: PCOS was the most prevalent gynecological disorder (55.41%) among women of the premenopausal age. Overall, the most frequent presenting complaint was infertility but age related variations in symptoms showed that young adolescent and adulthood had more menstruation irregularities while, in late adolescent the chief complaint was infertility. Moreover, these patients were either overweight 32% or obese 46.2%. Other associated problems such as anxiety and migraine were more frequent in young adults and juveniles respectively.

Conclusion: PCOS is the most common gynecological problem in our region. These women usually presents with altered complains that influence their physiological and psychological health which in turn effects the quality of life.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lifestyle Impact on Glycemic Control in Patients Diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes

Irma Aide Barranco-Cuevas, Beatriz Hitayatzy Zavaleta-García, María Del Consuelo Rodríguez-Chávez, Arturo García-Galicia, Itzel Gutierrez-Gabriel, Akihiki Mizuki González-López, Suemmy Gaytán-Fernández

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v30i430191

Objective: To determine the association lifestyle and glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes.

Study Design: This is a descriptive, cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in the Family Medicine Unit Number 55 of the Mexican Institute of Social Security in Puebla, Mexico during January to June in 2016.

Methodology: A total of 275 patients in whom the lifestyle and glycemic control were correlated. A questionnaire in which the variables included gender, age, level of education, occupation, marital status, lifestyle, glycemic control and number of years since they were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 2 was used. Descriptive statistics and X2 was used.

Results: 275 patients were included who met the inclusion criteria. Their average age was 59.7 years, the female gender prevailed with 64%. A result of X2=3.611 and P=0.05 was obtained; therefore the study was considered statistically significant, since value of P= .05 was considered statistically significant. Conclusion: There is an association between the patient’s lifestyle and glycemic control.