Open Access Method Article

Histomorphological Staining of Selected Organs by Iron-Roselle Nuclear Technique and Natural Counter Stains

S. A. Benard, T. D. Adeniyi, J. K. Bankole, J. O. Okoye

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/42802

Background: Roselle extract is proving to be a staining alternative to haematoxylin in histopathological studies. Early studies concentrated on organs like lymph nodes, appendix, liver, kidneys and brain. The present study aims at expanding the frontiers of knowledge on the histological application of natural dyes from H. sabdariffa on the histo-morphology of some connective tissue rich organs viz uterus, ovary, breast and skin.  Electrostatic compatibility with natural counter stains such as Sorghum bicolour, Baphia nitida (Camwood) and comparative reactions with standard counter stains like eosin, Masson Trichrome and Van Gieson was also explored.

Methods: Dry roselle calyces, Sorghum bicolour stalk, Camwood (Baphia nitida) powder were purchased at local markets in Ilorin, capital of Kwara State, Nigeria and identified at the Department of Plant Biology, University of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.  Staining solutions were prepared as recommended.  Blocks of tissues from the Skin, Ovary, Breast and Uterus were retrieved from the archive of the Pathology Department, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin.  Six sections were cut at 4 microns from each organ for each of the following Hibiscus based techniques-{Hib-Eosin (A), Hib-Trichrome(B), Hib-Van Gieson(C), Hib-Sorg (D), Hib-Camwood(E)} and haematoxylin based staining techniques { H&E(F), MT(G), HVG(H), Hx-Sorg(L) and Hx-Camwood (J)}as parallel controls.  Stained sections were blindly evaluated by three independent Histopathology experts for nucleus-cytoplasm staining, connective tissue demonstration and morphological preservation. Statistical evaluation was done using Near test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Kappa statistics with p-value set at 0.05.

Results: Histological observations show a satisfactory morphological demonstration of all the organs.  Statistical analysis shows no significance difference between the Hibiscus sabdariffa based staining techniques and standard haematoxylin based staining techniques.

Conclusion: The histo-morphological demonstration of skin, ovary, uterus and breast was well preserved by Hibiscus sabdarifa solution (Iron-Roselle) nuclear staining and showed satisfactory electrostatic combinations with eosin, trichrome, Sorghum bicolour, Van Gieson and Camwood counter stains.

Open Access Minireview Article

Vandetanib and Lenvatinib for the Treatment of Thyroid Cancers

Hye-Hyun Kim, Sun-Young Han

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/46474

Several drugs with Rearranged during Transfection (RET) kinase-inhibitory activity were recently introduced for thyroid cancer patients. RET gene aberrations were found in differentiated thyroid cancers and medullary thyroid cancers, subsets of thyroid cancers. Rearrangement of RET gene was found in differentiated thyroid cancers and point mutations were observed in medullary thyroid cancers, and both types of RET gene change result in the ligand-independent activation of RET kinase activity. Given the relationship of RET activity and thyroid cancers, RET inhibitors were developed as anti-tumor agents for thyroid cancers. Vandetanib, sorafenib, cabozantinib, and lenvatinib was approved drugs for thyroid cancer patients, and discovery and development processes of vandetanib and lenvatinib were discussed in this review.

Open Access Original Research Article

Foreign Body Aspiration in Children at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital

Mawutor Dzogbefia, Theophilus Adjeso, Duah Mohammed Issahalq, Rita Larsen-Reindorf, Anna Konney

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/45288

Introduction: Foreign body aspiration is a common life threatening event. Foreign bodies in the tracheobronchial tree account for significant morbidity and mortality in children and

a high index of suspicion is required for prompt diagnosis

Objectives: To review cases of aspirated foreign bodies in children at the Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) Department, Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH).

Materials and Methods: This was a six-year retrospective study conducted at the ENT Department, KATH. Data evaluated included age, sex, nature of the foreign body, location of the foreign body and outcomes of direct laryngoscopy/bronchoscopy. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 20.

Results: There were 45 cases:  64.4% (n=29) were males giving a male to female ratio of 2:1. Majority of foreign body aspirations occurred in children 3years or below. Aspiration of metallic objects occurred more frequently 9 (20.0%) followed by corn 8 (17.8%) and plastic objects 6 (13.3%). Majority of foreign bodies were located in the right main bronchus and there were two failed bronchoscopies.

Conclusion: Foreign body aspiration occurred more frequently in children three years or less and was more common in males. Majority of foreign bodies were located/lodged in the right main bronchus with metallic objects being the most aspirated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigating the Effects of Tolcapone a Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Inhibitor on Learning and Memory in Passive Avoidance Task

Anita Mihaylova, Hristina Zlatanova, Nina Doncheva, Delian Delev, Ilia Kostadinov

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/45339

Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of tolcapone in haloperidol-challenged rodent models of learning and memory and reserpine-induced parkinsonism in rats.

Methods: The learning and memory enhancing effects of tolcapone (TCP) were assessed in male Wistar rats treated with 5, 15 and 30 mg/kg bw, p.o. The impact of tolcapone on haloperidol challenge and reserpine induced parkinsonism was studied in rodents treated with 5,15 and 30 mg/kg bw TCP p.o. Step-through passive avoidance and loco-motor activity were assessed. The latency reaction time and the number of horizontal and vertical movements were registered, respectively. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS Statistics 19.

Results: Tolcapone in all studied doses increased latency in short- and long-term memory tests as well as the number of movements in the horizontal and vertical plane. The rats treated with haloperidol and tolcapone in all studied doses showed significant increase in latency during the training days and the two retention tests when compared with the haloperidol treated control but not with saline. In rats with the reserpine model of parkinsonism there was not significant difference in latencies between experimental and saline treated groups neither during the learning session nor during both memory retention tests.

Conclusion: Tolcapone improves incidental memory and delayed recall memory in hippocampus dependent step-through passive avoidance task. The observed effects are probably dopamine mediated but hippocampal noradrenaline might also play an important role.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Intestinal Helminthic Infections among Pupils in Kware, Sokoto State

J. Suleiman, G. Maryam, S. Y. Lema, T. M. Muhammad, M. S. Rabi’atu, M. S. Yakubu

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/45257

Present study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of the intestinal helminthic infection among pupils in Kware, Sokoto. Sarkin Yamma Model Primary School Kware pupils were selected by simple random selection. A total of 250 samples were collected from the pupils and analyzed using wet mount technique; out of which 65 (26.0%) were found positives. Ascaris lumbricoides was significantly found most prevalent 18.0% (45) among the pupil, followed by Schistosoma mansoni 6.0% (15) then Taenia saginata 2.0% (5). Gender specific prevalence showed that, males had higher prevalence rate of 29.2% (40) while female had 25 (18.0%) and significant association was observed (P<0.01). Although significant association was not observed (P>0.01) with respect to age group prevalence rate seen to decreased with increase of the pupils age. Pupils aged ≤ 7 years had a highest prevalence rate of 36.7% (18), followed by those pupils with aged between 8-10 years old 29.7% (19) then 11-13 years old with 17 (21.5%) and those with ≥ 14 years old had the least prevalence of 19.0% (11). It was recommended that, further study should investigate the intensity for the intestinal helminthic infection among the pupils in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Coping Strategies of Clients with Fertility Challenges Attending Obstetric and Gynaecological Clinic of University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Borno State, North Eastern Nigeria

Lola Nelson, Sambo Danlami, Uba Markus Njidda, Dathini Hamina, Kaltum Ibrahim Jidda

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/41319

This study was on coping strategies of clients with fertility challenges attending Obstetric and Gynaecological clinic of University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. The objectives of the study were to ascertain the use of escape/avoidance coping strategy by couples with fertility challenges, determine the use of self-controlling coping strategy by couples with fertility challenges, determine if couples with fertility challenges use social seeking support as a coping strategy and assess if couples with fertility challenges use positive reappraisal as a coping strategy. Descriptive design was used for the study. 232 respondents were selected using purposive sampling technique. The instrument for data collection was adapted from Folkman and Lazarus ways of coping. The face and content validity were determined by a psychologist and a consultant in Obstetric and Gynaecological clinic in UMTH. The results were presented in tables as percentages, means and standard deviation. Pearson Chi-square and Fisher’s Exact test were used to determine the association between coping strategies based on gender at 0.05level of significance. Major findings of the study revealed that males used most coping strategies than the females. The analysis shows 57% of males and 31.1% of females drink and smokes and indulges in drugs as escape/avoidance coping strategy. There was significant difference in the used of escape/avoidance strategy (P=0.000). Similarly, there was significant difference in the use of self-controlling coping strategy as P=0.000, where 79.2% of males and 50.3% of females avoid people who trouble them about pregnancy and children. However, there was no significant difference in the use of social seeking support as 75% of males and 92.2% of females ask people with similar problem for advice with P=0.080. In the same vein, 64.9% of males and 89.2% of females used praying to God to change the situation as a positive reappraisal coping strategy with P=0.087. In conclusion, escape/avoidance and Self-control coping strategies were used more by men and there was no difference in use of social seeking support and positive reappraisal coping strategies. It was recommended that clients should use more of positive coping strategies like social seeking support and positive reappraisal to cope with the challenges of infertility.