Open Access Original Research Article

Animal Toxicological Studies of Agunmu Iba (Malaria Herbal Medicine)

O. G. Dawodu, C. A. Adefila

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/44452

Malaria is a disease that kills millions of people worldwide every year and demographic studies tell us of the resilient or resistant nature of the malaria parasite to orthodox drugs. Agunmu iba is a herbal concoction made locally to cure or prevent malaria in Africa. Agunmu iba extract was investigated for its toxic effects in Wistar rats using liver and kidney functionality indicators. Thirty six albino rats weighing 200.08 ± 10.21g were assigned into six groups (A–F) of six animals each randomly. Test groups A–E animals were administered orally daily with 1 ml of the extract equivalent to 50 mg/kg body weight of the extract for a 15 duration with the control group receiving 1 ml of distilled water orally. On the 16th day, the animals were sacrificed. The extract decreased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in the liver to about 80% loss. No consistent pattern was recorded in the kidney ALP activity and serum bilirubin level, the serum enzyme compared well (p>0.05) with the control value. Acid phosphatase activity of the tissues and serum of the animals showed no significant effect. The extract reduced urea, albumin and creatinine levels in the serum. These observed changes in biochemical parameters by the aqueous extract of Agunmu iba may have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the liver and kidney of the animals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Experimental Periodontitis Does Not Influence the Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in Wistar Rats after Axonotmesis

Jéssica Aline Malanotte, Lucinéia de Fatima Chasko Ribeiro, Ana Luiza Peretti, Rose Meire Costa Brancalhão, Gladson Ricardo Flor Bertolini, Patricia Oehlmeyer Nassar, Carlos Augusto Nassar

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/45082

Background and Objective: This paper aims at analysing the effect of the inflammatory periodontal disease condition on the peripheric nerve regeneration.

Methods: Thirty-two male rats were used and divided in 4 groups: control (CG); periodontitis (PG); nerve injury (IG); periodontitis with nerve injury (IPG). On the first experiment, the animals were submitted to a bilateral ligature around the lower first molars. Then, on the fifteenth day, they were submitted to a peripheral nerve injury and euthanised on the thirtieth day, then, their sciatic nerve and their right hemimandibles were collected.

Results: The induction of the periodontitis was proved by the histomorphometric of the mandible. When it comes to the nerve morphometric analysis, there was no difference among the nerve fibers groups (NF) compared to the viable FN longer than 4 micrometers (µm), CG and PG presented higher quantity of IG and IPG, on the less than 4 µm fibers, being similar in these groups. CG and PG presented smaller quantity of nonviable fibers. The NF diameter, axon and myelin sheath, CG and PG presented diameters longer than 4µm, while only the MS presented shorter than 4µm difference, CG presented a longer diameter than IG and IPG. All groups depicted similar quantities of blood vessels, conjunctive tissue and cell nuclei density, CG and PG presented lower values than the other groups.

Conclusion: Therefore, it can be suggest that induced periodontitis did not influence the sciatic nerve process of regeneration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Detection and Characterisation of Lassa Fever Virus among Patients Attending Tertiary Hospitals in Jos, Central Nigeria

Solomon Chuwang Chollom, Daniel Zanyu Egah, Patricial Lar, Sophia Osawe, Alash’le Abimiku

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/45277

Background: Lassa fever is a highly contagious viral haemorrhagic fever that was first identified in 1969 following lethal infection of a missionary in Lassa, North eastern Nigeria.

Aim: The aim of the study was to carry out molecular detection and characterisation of Lassa viruses in Jos.

Study Design: Cross sectional study.

Materials and Methods: We targeted patients presenting with Lassa fever-like symptoms, including people who had lived in close association with them in Jos, central Nigeria. A total of 156 blood samples were collected from consented participants.

Results: Lassa IgG and IgM was detected using ELISA technique while S- RNA gene of Lassa virus was detected using RT-PCR. Partial sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the S-RNA gene was done using appropriate tools. A Lassa virus seroprevalence of 24% was established in the study area. RT-PCR detected Lassa virus S-gene in 8 (5.1%) samples, while gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed Lassa virus strains aligning with lineages II and III of Lassa viruses in the GenBank. Statistically, a positive correlation (r=0.057) among suspected cases and exposed subjects was established. Also, a negative correlation (r= -0.005) was seen among outcome of serology and molecular detection among suspected cases while a positive correlation (r= 0.086) was observed in the sub-population of suspected cases with regards to outcome of serology and molecular detection.

Conclusion: The discovery of Lassa strains aligning with lineage II Lassa viruses in GenBank is novel and remains the first report on the strains in central Nigeria. Similar work is recommended in other regions of the country.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Risk Factors Associated with Diabetic Foot Ulcers among Diabetic Patients Attending Suez Canal University Hospitals

Shorok Gamal, Abd-Raof El-Deib, Fawzi A. Khalil, Khalil A. Khalil, Seham A. Omar, Mohmed M. Abdou, Hamdy Sliem

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/45518

Background: Diabetic patients are prone to multiple complications such as diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). There are many risk factors associated with DFUs that could be simply prevented.

Aim: Assessment of risk factors associated with Diabetic Foot Ulcers and their prevalence among diabetic patients attending Suez Canal University Hospitals.

Patients and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried in Diabetic and Endocrinology clinic of Suez Canal University Hospital where 68 patients with diabetic foot ulcers were examined.  Patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to document clinical history. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software Ver. 22.

Results: The mean age was 58.29± 10.86 years. The most prevalent and significant risk factors were: absence of foot self-care (95.6%), poor foot health education (92.6%), wearing inappropriate shoes (89.7%), insulin dependent therapy (83.8%), poor compliance on diet or treatment (73.5%), poor glycemic control (72.1%), duration of diabetes more than 10 years (70.6%) and presence of peripheral neuropathy (67.6%) with P values <0.05%.

 Conclusion: The most prevalent risk factors among DFUs patients were:  absence of foot self-care, insufficient receiving foot health education and wearing in-appropriate shoes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Clinical Outcomes of Outpatients Following Chest X-ray Imaging Performed at King Abdul–Aziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Ali Aldhebaib, Oinam Gokulchandra Singh, Zyad Almutlaq, Fayazul Haq, Adel Ali Alharbi, Faisal Sultan Alotaibi, Abdulrhman Abdullah Alkhulaifi, Mohammed Abdullatif Albaijan, Khalid Obaid Alharbi

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/44936

Background: Chest X-ray imaging is one of the most commonly performed daily routine investigations in many of the hospitals and diagnostic centers around the globe. Many people have chest X-rays before surgery, although a diagnosis is made based on the findings in only a few cases and each procedure adds to the radiation dose accumulation. According to the American college of Radiology (ACR), most CXR radiograph are less effective and should only be recommended based on the appropriateness criteria including elderly and high risk patients. Nevertheless the issue of replacing X-rays with other technique remains uncertain and mandates further investigation. To aim of this study was to assess and identify the clinical outcomes of outpatients following chest X-ray imaging performed.

Materials and Methods: In total, the data for 185 patients (83 men, 102 female; age range 15 to 90 and above) who underwent chest X-rays were analyzed. This is a retrospective quantitative study design and data was collected from medical records using convenient sampling technique held at King Abdul–Aziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in Radiology Department from September, 2017 to March, 2018.

Results: Analysis of the collected data of a total of 185 patients revealed that 73.5% of the patients had negative radiological findings, while 26.5% had positive radiological findings. The majority of patients were females, comprising 55.1% of the total sample size, while 44.9% were male patients.

Conclusion: From the results of our study, we conclude that that most cases had negative radiological findings regardless of the gender. The daily routine chest radiograph can be avoided by replacing other imaging modalities.

Open Access Review Article

The Molecular Anatomy of Myelodysplastic Syndromes: An Update

Ioanna Kotsiri, Dimitra Fasfali, Emmanouil Magiorkinis

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-23
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/45213

Aims: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of clonal haematopoietic disorders arising from blood stem cells. Their main characteristics are a wide range of cytopenias and ineffective haematopoiesis. The purpose of this review was to summarise the current knowledge on the molecular biology of MDS the impact of gene mutations on the outcome of the disease.

Materials and Methods: A thorough search of PubMed was conducted and a review of the current literature.

Results: The introduction of novel techniques in molecular biology (real-time PCR, next generation sequencing) has led to the identification of a series of mutations associated with prognosis of MDS patients and response to therapy and the development of novel prognostic models classifying MDS patients into risk groups. Those mutations include chromosomal aberrations and point mutations involving genes associated with mRNA splicing, methylation, signal transduction, regulation of transcription and cell cycle and other cellular pathways.

Conclusion:  Further studies will be needed in order to define the precise role of those mutations in prognosis and therapy of MDS.