Open Access Letter to the Editor

NDUFA2 - Associated Mitochondrial Disorder Requires Thorough Clinical and Genetic Work-Up in First-Degree Family Members

Josef Finsterer, Sinda Zarrouk-Mahjoub

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-3
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/42689

The “Type of Article” of this paper is “Letter to the Editor”. This paper discuses about: “NDUFA2 - Associated Mitochondrial Disorder Requires Thorough Clinical and Genetic Work-Up in First-Degree Family Members”. No formal abstract is available. Readers are requested to read the full article.

Open Access Short Communication

Consumption of Sweets as a Risk Factor for Diabetes Mellitus among Adults in Odisha-A Cross-sectional Study

Suchanda Sahu, Gowtham I. Priyan

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/40882

Background and Objectives: India is the diabetic capital of world. Though many have reported prevalence in various states of India, there is paucity of reports from Odisha where a lot of sweets and desserts are produced locally. This research project was designed to screen apparently healthy population using simple measures to diagnose and score risk for diabetes mellitus in different working-class categories of Odisha.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 150 randomly selected non-diabetic adults (18-50 years) with 50 subjects each in sedentary, moderate and heavy workers group. The Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS) was calculated for each subject. The association of diabetes with sweet intake, physical activity and anthropometric measurements were calculated using relative risk ratio individually.

Results: 16% were with high risk and 46% were at a moderate risk among sedentary workers. In moderate workers group, 12% were at high risk and 44% were at moderate risk. Among heavy workers population, there was none in a high-risk category and only 12% were found to have a moderate risk. The relative risks of people consuming sweets with IDRS score >30 (with risk) were 1.25, 1.07 and 0.54 in sedentary, moderate and heavy workers respectively.

Interpretations and Conclusions: The proportion of sweets intake, reduced physical activity and significant family history were associated with diabetic risk. Educating the population about diets having low glycaemic index and incorporating healthy food and exercise as a habit will go a long way in abetting the rising incidence of diabetes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Co-Relation between Facial Form and Maxillary Central Incisors Form (Part II)

Abhinav Agarwal, Kaushik Kumar Pandey, Mariyam Ali, A. K. Verma, Pratibha Katiyar, Abhishek Gaur, Fauzia Tarannum

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/42245

Aim and objective: to evaluate the correlation between facial form and maxillary central incisor form in north Indian population. Materials and method: detection of the maxillary central incisor form was done by tracing the inverted picture of central incisor. The detection of facial form was done with the help of customised trubyte tooth indicator instrument (Dentsply/work division, dentsplyinst, USA).

Results: The agreement between face form and tooth form. There was a moderate agreement between face and tooth form (40.8%).

Conclusion: There appeared to be an moderate agreement between face form and tooth form, 40.8% to be precise, this goes with the previous literature available. It was also pointed out that the most common facial and tooth form was ovoid, followed by tapering.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Paricalcitrol as an Active Vitamin D Analogue on Erectile Function and Penile NOS Expression in Diabetic Rats

Amany Shalaby, Gehan A. Shaker, Eman H. El-Adawy

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/41829

Objectives: To investigate the effect of paricalcitrol as a vitamin D analogue on erectile dysfunction and on the penile expression of superoxide anion generationand nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms instreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats models.

Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Diabetes was induced by a one-time intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). The rats with blood glucose levels above 300 mg/dL were selected for the study. The erectile function of the rats was assessed by recording frequency of erection after subcutaneous injection of apomorphine (80 ug/kg). Those were divided into 2 groups (N = 10 per group): i) EDDM (erectile dysfunction diabetes mellitus) group fed with saline and ii) EDDM + paricalcitrol treated group receiving paricalcitrol (0.4 µg/k/day) by intraperitoneal injection. 10 animals were used as a control group and received no streptozotocin.

4 weeks later, the erectile function of the rats was assessed by recording frequency of erection after subcutaneous injection of apomorphine (80 ug/kg). Superoxide anion generation and mRNA expression of of nNOS and eNOS were evaluated in corpora cavernosum tissue.

Results: Penile erection, the expression of both nNOS, eNOS generation was significantly elevated however the superoxide generation was significantly decreased in paricalcitrol treated group compared to diabetic group.

Conclusion: Treatment with paricalcitrol for 4 weeks improves erectile dysfunction in diabetic rats probably by improving expression of nitric oxide synthase expression and decreasing superoxide production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-α) and Plasma Glucose Level Changes Due to Dietary Fat and Beta Carotene in Wistar Rats

Okechukwu, N. Getrude, Nweke, B. Ofobuike, Uchewa O. Obinna, Ezemagu, K. Uchenna, Ibegbu, O. Augustine

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/42282

Background: Beta-carotene (βC), an antioxidant present in fruits and vegetables responsible for the yellow coloration of these plants has been used for ages as remedies against different ailments. The present study was aimed at investigating tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and plasma glucose level changes due to dietary fat and β-carotene in Wistar rats.

Methods: Thirty (30) male Wistar rats were grouped into 6. Group A was the Control and received distilled water, Group B received high fat diet of 60% fat and 40% rat chow, Group C received 300 mg/kg body weight (bwt) of βC, Group D received high-fat diet for 12 weeks and was treated with 300 mg/kg bwt of βC for 2 weeks, Group E received 300mg/kg bwt of βC for 2 weeks and then high-fat diet for 12 weeks while Group F received high-fat diet for 12 weeks and then treated with 150 mg/kg bwt of βC for 2 weeks. At the end of 14 weeks, the animals were sacrificed; blood samples collected and the livers were harvested, homogenised and assayed.

Results: The results showed a significant decrease in plasma glucose level in Groups C and D when compared to Groups A, B and F (P≤0.05). The result of TNF-α assay showed that the TNF-α was significantly higher in Group B compared with the other Groups and was significantly lower in Group E compared to the treatment Groups (P≤0.05).

Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that β carotene can be effective in reducing blood glucose and that consumption of dietary fats sequel the increase in TNF-α and as such could predispose to dietary obesity and cancer in humans and animals.

Open Access Review Article

Junctional Epithelium or Epithelial Attachment around Implant: Which Term is Desirable?: A Review

Mahdi Kadkhodazadeh, Reza Amid, Farnaz Kouhestani, Hoda Parandeh, Mohamadjavad Karamshahi

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/41593

Aim: review of previous relevant studies to assess histological differences in gingival tissue around dental implants and natural teeth to answer the question whether the tissue around dental implants is junctional epithelium or it better be named epithelial attachment.

Methodology: An electronic search of three databases (PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar) between May 1980 and May 2017 were performed. Full text, Histological and clinical evaluation, Animal and human studies were included.

Result: Of articles selected by each researcher after reading their abstracts, a total of 49 articles were selected after excluding the duplicates. The full texts of these articles were thoroughly read and were discussed. Finally, 45 out of 49 articles were found to be incomplete relevance to our topic based on our criteria and were reviewed. Some differences were seen in epithelial attachment around teeth and implant in terms of thickness, length and adhesion strength; moreover implant characteristics effect on epithelial attachment dimensions around implants.

Conclusion: According to existing studies, it seems that the origin of the epithelium around the implants is similar to the junctional epithelium around teeth histologically but there is controversial information on the similarities and differences between the epithelium around the tooth and the implant in terms of thickness, length and adhesion strength. Therefore, it is suggested to use the word “epithelial attachment” around implant instead of “junctional epithelium”.

Open Access Review Article

Alternatives to Balloon Kyphoplasty for Surgical Treatment of Vertebral Compression Fractures: A State-of-the-Art Review

Gladius Lewis

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/42418

Background: For patients in whom the pain due to osteoporosis-induced vertebral compression fracture(s) is severe, persistent, and refractory to a conservative treatment (such as, analgesics, back bracing, or physical therapy), it is common to resort to surgical intervention, in the form of a vertebral augmentation method, most commonly, balloon kyphoplasty (BKP). Although there are some reports of the efficacy of this procedure (for example, provision of pain relief), there is lack of consensus on this matter as well as recognition of various shortcomings of BKP. Four principal shortcomings are damage to the trabecular bone when the bone tamp is inflated, loss of the restored height in the period between deflation of the bone tamp and injection of the cement dough, extravasation of the cement dough, and fracture of adjacent vertebral body/bodies.

Purpose: Presentation of a critical review of clinical performance of alternative surgical methods to BKP that are aimed at addressing the aforementioned and other shortcomings of BKP.

Design and Methods: A literature search for articles on BKP and alternative surgical methods was conducted using relevant keywords and public databases, such as PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar.

Results: These comprised succinct descriptions of salient features of various alternative surgical methods, such as radiofrequency kyphoplasty, vertebral body stenting, and lordoplasty; a critical examination of the results of clinical studies involving these methods (in particular, vis a vis BKP); and presentations of suggestions for future study.

Conclusion: Various deficiencies of the clinical literature mean that definitive statements cannot be made on each of the alternative surgical methods discussed as a viable alternative to BKP.