Open Access Systematic Review Article

Healthcare Professionals Working with LGBTQ Patients

Abigail Mitchell, Megan Somers, Amelia Bauder, Denecia Lewis

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/40721

Deficiencies in professional training, ethical care, and clinical competence are underlying contributors to healthcare inequities that result in poor health outcomes for the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer (LGBTQ) community. The goal of this paper is to initiate and sustain a sensitive healthcare environment that bridges the gap from traditional approaches for providing care to LGBTQ patients. Training provided on gender and sexuality sensitivity for healthcare professionals is needed to improve communication and to decrease health disparities.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Combined Hypnosis-echography Therapy in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Pilot Study

Danilo Sirigu, Nino Sole, Monica Musio, Paolo Usai-Satta, Francesco Oppia

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/40669

Aims: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a disorder that can severely impair quality of life. While several treatments are available, their efficacy has not been completely proved. Aim of our study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of a new technique which combines traditional clinical hypnosis with echography.

Methodology: of 31 IBS patients (28 F), 10 underwent combined clinical hypnosis-echography treatment, which was carried out during one 2-hour session per week for 4 months. This protocol combines hypnotherapy with echographic visualization of the abdominal organs. Treatment efficacy was evaluated utilising a symptom questionnaire and was then compared with that achieved in two control groups: one consisting of 11 patients treated with hypnotherapy alone, the other made up of 10 patients treated with conventional drug therapy. 

Results: The results revealed that treatment with hypnosis-echography was more efficacious than the other two therapies, the difference being more marked in comparison with drug therapy. Abdominal pain had better results but also bowel habits and quality of life improved after this combined treatment.

Conclusions: the combination of hypnosis and echography can be effective in controlling IBS symptoms and in improving the quality of life of the patients treated. The best results were obtained concerning pain. This experimental protocol enables patients to increase their awareness of their own bodies and to focus the psychic and biochemical resources elicited by hypnosis on the target organs identified by echography. This experience might further broaden the field of application of echography.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Malaria in Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in Primary Health Centres in Lagos. South West, Nigeria

Aina Oluwagbemiga, Akinsanya Bamidele, Adewale Babatunde, Agomo Chimere, Sulyman Medinat, Rahman Olalekan

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/39620

Introduction: Malaria infection during pregnancy is a significant public health problem, and pregnancy is known to alter the immune response of women to malaria primarily in tropical and sub-tropical regions; with substantial risks for the mother, her foetus and the newborn. The study investigated the prevalence of malaria infection in pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in primary health care centers in Lagos State.

Methods: Malaria test was carried out on the participants, using Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test RDT (Pf Pan kits) and thick and thin blood films were made from each participant on a slide for parasitaemia.

Results: A total of 202 participants were screened for the malaria parasite. The prevalence of malaria in the study participants was 4(2%).  Out of the 4 participants that were infected with malaria 3 had Plasmodium falciparum and 1 had Plasmodium ovale species. The geometric mean parasite density was 309.5 parasite/µl of blood while the mean body temperature was 36.4±0.28°C. None of the participants had fever. Haematocrit was standard for most of the participants 186 (94.0%) while mild and moderate anaemia was observed in 8(4.0%) and 4(2.0%) of the participants respectively.

Conclusion: In conclusion, malaria prevalence was very low among the pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Lagos, the Participants had good knowledge that the transmission of malaria is by mosquitoes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation of Antioxidants Enzymes Activity with Fasting Blood Glucose in Diabetic Patients in Sokoto, Nigeria

A. A. Ngaski

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/38627

Several studies have reported the presence of oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus as a result of increased generation of reactive oxygen species and diminished antioxidant defence. The current study evaluated the plasma activities of three antioxidant enzymes- catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in type 2 diabetic patients and non-diabetic control subjects. A total of 266 subjects were recruited for the study, 165 type 2 diabetic patients and 101 non-diabetic control subjects from Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Maryam Abacha Women and Children Hospital, and Specialist Hospital, Sokoto. All the three antioxidant enzyme activities were assayed in plasma using colourimetric enzymatic techniques. FBG was measured using glucose oxidase method. The mean activities of CAT, GPX and SOD, were significantly lower (p< 0.05, p< 0.001 and p<0.001) in diabetic patients when compared to non-diabetic control subjects respectively. The mean activities of CAT, GPX and SOD were correlated with fasting blood sugar. The mean activity of SOD was positively correlated while CAT and GPX were negatively correlated with fasting blood sugar. These findings confirm that diabetic patients have low activities of the antioxidant enzymes compared to the non-diabetic control subjects. Periodic assay of the activities of these enzymes in diabetic patients as adjunct biochemical analytes in monitoring is suggested.

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Emergencies in the Adult Emergency Department of a Tertiary Hospital in a Resource-constrained Setting of South-Eastern Nigeria

Gabriel Uche Pascal Iloh, Chinasa Orie Agwu Amadi, Agwu Nkwa Amadi

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/25928

Background: Despite significant progress and advances in the management of cardiovascular (CV) emergencies and the knowledge of its determinants globally, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) constitute a significant cause of emergency department (ED) hospitalizations especially in a resource-constrained environment.

Aim: The study was aimed at reviewing epidemiology of cardiovascular emergencies in the adult emergency department of a tertiary hospital in a resource-constrained setting of South-eastern Nigeria.

Study Design: This was a retrospective cohort study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted on patients who presented with diagnoses of CVDs to the ED of Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Nigeria over a five year period from January 2008 to December 2012.

Methods: Data sources were from patients’ case notes, medical records, nurses report books and ED admission registers. Information extracted included age, sex, place of the incidence, time of presentation to the ED, month (season) of occurrence and the type of CVDs. Operationally, time of presentation to the ED was categorized into two periods of time: day time was defined inclusively as time period from 6.00 am to 6.00 pm while night time referred exclusively to the time period from 6.00 pm to 6.00 am Nigerian time.

Results: A total of 868 patients were reviewed. There ages ranged from 30 to 95 years with mean age of 62.6±14.4 years. There were 52.9% males and 47.1% females. The incidence of CV illnesses predominantly occurred at home (66.7%), 603 (69.5%) presented during the night time, and 473 (54.5%) occurred during dry season. The three most common CV emergencies were hypertensive crises syndrome (35.9%), acute hypertensive heart failure (32.1%) and acute stroke syndrome (30.7%). Ischemic heart disease constituted 1.3% of the ED hospitalizations.

Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that CV emergencies with hypertensive crises syndrome as well as complications of hypertension (heart failure and stroke) were the most common CV emergency and ischemic heart disease was the least in our centre. The patients affected were predominantly males and elderly patients. Most of the patients lived at home and presentations appeared to occur more frequently during dry season and most presented during the night. The findings of this study signal the urgent need for enhanced and proactive interventions for prevention of hypertension in these groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Toxoplasmosis amongst Healthy Volunteers and Schizophrenics Attending Two Health Facilities in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

G. N. Wokem, E. Onosakponome

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734//JAMMR/2018/39954

Toxoplasmosis is a neglected tropical zoonotic infection caused by an intercellular protozoan parasite called Toxoplasma gondii. T. gondii infection is gaining prominence as an important public health parasitic infection and possibly the aetiology of some cases of schizophrenia. The comparative seroprevalence and associated risk factors of toxoplasmosis were investigated among two subpopulations - schizophrenics (SZN) drawn from the Neuropsychiatric hospital Port Harcourt and Neuropsychiatric department of University of Port-Harcourt Teaching Hospital, all in Rivers State. Immunocompetent persons (IP) were used as control after ethical clearance was obtained from Rivers State Hospitals Management Board Ethical Committee. Immunodiagnostic techniques involving the detection of T. gondii antibodies in examined sera using ELISA IgG and IgM tests were employed. Well structured questionnaire was used to collect data on social demographic risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis. Out of the 400 subjects (200 subjects per sub population) examined, SZN recorded a seroprevalence of 54.0% (109) (P ≤ 0.05), while IP recorded 28.5% (57) (P ≤ 0.05). SZN recorded a higher seroprevalence compared to IP with 50.0% (100), 4% (8) and 21.5% (43), 7.0% (14) for Toxoplasma gondii ELISA IgG and IgM tests respectively. Age groups 35-40 and 40 and above both had the highest seroprevalence 11.0% (22) for SZN while age groups 25-29 had the highest seroprevalence of 7.5% (15) for IP. Students recorded the highest seroprevalence for SZN, 21.5% (43) for IgGE and 2.0% (4) for IgME while traders recorded the highest seroprevalence for IP 6.5% (13) for IgGE and 2.5% (5) for IgME. More males were infected among SZN while more females were infected for IP. Eating improperly washed fruits and vegetables, and drinking untreated water were the risk factors associated with the disease. Public health campaign, improved personal hygiene and routine tests have been advocated for.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nursing, Midwifery and Medical Students’ Attitudes toward Induced Abortion in Manisa, Turkey

Dilek Ozmen, Nursen Bolsoy, Aynur Çakmakçi Çetinkaya, Seval Cambaz Ulaş, Beyhan Cengiz Özyurt

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/40483

Introduction: Induced abortion, defined as terminating pregnancy intentionally by medical intervention, has been discussed for centuries due to its medical, religious, moral, sociological and reproductive aspects.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigates nursing, midwifery and medical students’ attitudes towards induced abortion and the variables affecting these attitudes.

Materials and Methods: The study sample included 180 students. All participants have to go through from three different questionnaire sets: first one is based on socio-demographic aspects with 9 questions; second one is related to inventory attitude questionnaire towards abortion with 12 questions and finally the third questionnaire is on knowledge of abortion with 14 questions. Now all the data are calculated statistically with calculation number distribution, chi square test and logistic regression.

Results: The students did not have a negative attitude towards induced abortion. They even had a positive attitude towards induced abortion in cases of medical or social necessity. Perceived religiousness had a negative effect on attitudes towards induced abortion, and increased knowledge about abortion and culture had a positive effect on attitudes towards abortion. Logistic regression analyses showed that the variable significantly correlating with the highest number of statements about attitudes was religiosity.

Conclusions:  It is possible to say that students with future health professionals generally have supportive attitudes towards induced abortion.