Open Access Minireview Article

The Dilemma of Exogenous Antioxidant Therapy in Clinical Practice in Nigeria: Insight into Health Implication

B. K. Myke-Mbata, S. C. Meludu, C. E. Dioka

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/39937

The growing interest among health care users in developing countries on antioxidant therapy has led to indiscriminate abuse of highly marketed antioxidant therapy. In a normal cell, there should be a balance of activities between free radicals and antioxidants which are tightly regulated by the homeostatic mechanism of the human body. How does antioxidant therapy effect this balance? This review will be throwing light on the import of exogenous supplementation of antioxidants, especially in a disease state.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphometric Evaluation of Styloid Process Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography- A Retrospective Study of Chennai Population

S. Kailasam, F. Massillamani, Venkata Lakshmi Aparna Potluri, Akila Prabakaran, Naga Leela Guntuku, C. K. Vishnu Priya

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/39071

Introduction: The styloid process arises from petrous part of temporal bone as an osseous projection and shows considerable anatomic variability. The elongated styloid process presents with various signs and symptoms. The manifestations may vary widely such as cervicofacial pain, cerebral ischaemia and even death. Diagnosis can be made by clinical evaluation and different imaging modalities of which Cone Beam Computed Tomography(CBCT) gives a more accurate measurement. The morphological knowledge of styloid process and its variation is essential as it has various clinical implications in the field of dentistry, cardiology and forensic sciences.

Aim: The objective of the present study is to evaluate 3 dimensionally the structural variation of styloid process, to evaluate the length and to analyse the prevalence of elongated styloid process according to age and gender using CBCT.

Study Design: Cross sectional retrospective study.

Materials and Methods: A series of CBCT images from 100 patients comprising of 74 males and 26 females were collected retrospectively at Ragas Dental College, Chennai during the period from September 2016 to October 2016. CBCT of study subjects were obtained using Galileos Comfort Plus. Statistics used was Chi Square test and analysis was done by using the statistical package SPSS version 20.0

Results: The prevalence of elongated styloid process was 56.6% with more prevalence in males 46.5% with 47% being Type I elongation(with uninterrupted integrity of styloid process) and 41% had type A pattern of calcification(calcified outline of styloid process)

Conclusion: This study provides 3 dimensional knowledge of anatomical variation in styloid process according to age and gender. Assessment should be done during routine assessment to rule out any abnormalities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adequate Exercise Improves Inflammatory, Gonadal Markers and Sexual Function in Type 2 Diabetics

N. Amidu, H. Alidu, W. K. B. A. Owiredu, B. B. Antuamwine, O. Addai-Mensah, P. P. M. Dapare

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/39766

Background: Sexual dysfunction is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome and its components, obesity, androgens, endothelial function, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers, which are influenced positively by physical activity. Therefore, an increase in physical activity is expected to improve the sexual function of people with diabetes. The study seeks to find the association between daily routine exercise and sexual function in diabetic men.

Methods: Heterosexually active type II diabetic men were categorized based on whether they were engaged in some form of exercise or not. Sexual function and sexual quality were assessed using the GRISS-M and SQoL-M respectively, while blood samples for lipid profiling and testosterone estimation were obtained in the fasting state.

Results: The levels of testosterone were significantly higher among those who were engaged in some form of exercise compared to those who were not engaged in any form of exercise. In effect, better lipid profile markers, sexual function and adiponectin levels were recorded among participants who engaged in some form of exercise over those who were not engaged in any form of exercise.

Conclusion: Exercise may be an interventional approach to improving lipid profile indices and sexual quality in type II diabetic men.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rehabilitation and Paid Employment for Blind People in a Low Income Country

Oluwatoni O. Onabolu, Olubunmi T. Bodunde, Adetunji H. Ajibode, Taibat O. Otulana, Michael Ebonhor, Olusoji J. Daniel

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/39856

Background: Rehabilitation of blind people is one of the components of Vision 2020. Despite advancement in technology and low vision rehabilitation, it is still difficult for blind people to gain paid employment especially in low income countries. This study was embarked upon to determine employment status of the rehabilitated blind in Ogun State and factors that enhance paid employment.

Methodology: A cross sectional study of sixty six blind adults was recruited from Nigerian Society of blind people Ogun State branch from May 2017-November 2017. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on personal data, academic qualifications, mode of rehabilitation, employment status, and Braille literacy. One hundred and one potential employers from six sectors of the economy were also recruited into the study to assess their willingness to employ blind persons and the qualifications required. 

Result: The age range of respondents in this study was 17-68 years, mean 38.51±11.97 years.  Forty two (63.66%) were males, 25(37.9%) had tertiary education, 35(53%) were Braille literate and 18(27.2%) had paid employment 16 of whom were by the Government. Education was significantly associated with paid employment (P=0.008).  Amongst prospective employers 55(54.5%) would employ a blind person but did not know in what capacity.

Conclusion: The rate of paid employment for blind subjects is low. Tertiary education as a component of rehabilitation is important for blind people to get paid employment. Employers are ignorant of capabilities of blind subjects and forum of interactions between the two should be encouraged.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Ante-natal Care, Place of Delivery and Post-natal Care Services of Rural Women in Northern Nigeria

Okafoagu Christina Nneka, Ango Jessica Timane, Raji Ismail Adullateef

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/40285

Aim: This study aimed to identify the determinants of Ante-natal care, place of delivery and post-natal care services of rural women in Northern Nigeria.

Study Design: It was a descriptive cross-sectional design

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in selected rural areas of Sokoto State, Northern Nigeria during the periods January – February 2017.

Methodology: A multistage sampling technique was used to recruit 322 mothers for the study. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using IBM SPSS. The study examined attendance at Ante-natal care services, place of delivery and attendance of post-natal care as primary outcomes. Binary logistic regression using forced entry was used to compute the determinants of Ante-natal care services, place of delivery and post-natal services. The output of the regression analysis was presented as Odds Ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. The level of significance was set at p ≤ 0.05.

Results: Majority 258 (80.1%) of the mothers attended ante-natal care but only 45 (14%) of the mothers delivered in the hospital while only 104 (32.3%) went for post-natal visit. Determinants of Ante-natal care services, place of delivery and post-natal care was found to be maternal education and socioeconomic status. Mothers with formal education were twice more to attend Ante-natal care services (p ≤ 0.05, OR = 2.11, 95% C.I = 0.99 – 4.450. Mothers with non-formal education were more likely to deliver at home (p = 0.01, OR = 0.29, 95% C.I = 0.14 – 0.59) while those in the upper class were more to attend post-natal care (p = 0.03, OR = 1.81, 95% C.I = 1.05 – 3.13).

Conclusion: The study demonstrates that maternal education and socioeconomic status influence Ante-natal care services, place of delivery and post-natal services. Therefore, there is need to encourage female-child education and women should be empowered to improve their socioeconomic status so that they can take charge of their health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacognostical Standardization of Stem Bark of Rhododendron arboreum Sm.(Pullas)

Santosh Kumar Thakur, Mita Kotecha, Sumit Natthani, Bidhan Mahajon

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/40391

Aims: To evaluate the Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical characteristics of the stem bark of Rhododendron arboreum Sm.(Pullas)

Place and Duration of Study: Pharmacognostical and phytochemical laboratory, PG Department of Dravyaguna Vigyana, National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur-302002 and Ayushraj Laboratory, Jaipur. During the period of October 2017 to December 2017.

Methodology: Rhododendron arboreum Sm. was collected from Godawari Botanical Garden of Nepal, Ministry of forest, Govt. of Nepal, during the month of September 2017. The samples were Identified and authenticated by the same institution. Then the materials were subjected to evaluate the Macroscopic study, Microscopic study, Physicochemical study, Phytochemical screening, Heavy Metals Analysis, Determination of Aflatoxins and Pesticide residue analysis as per the standard available guideline.

Results: The microscopic feature of stem bark Rhododendron arborieum Sm. after treatment of different reagents (safranin, fecl3, iodine etc.) showed various cellular and chemical structures like scaliform vessels, calcium oxalate, starch grain, fragment of cork cells and pitted vessel. Physicochemical analysis showed Moisture content-7.55%, Total ash-2.11%, Acid insoluble ash-3.47%, Water soluble ash-0.91%, Aqueous extractive value-3.45%, Ether extractive value-3.17%, Petroleum ether extractive value-1.83, Ph-4.6. Analysis of heavy metal and aflatoxin analysis showed parameters were the within limit as per API standard. HPTLC screening of ethanol extract of the test sample showed four unknown chemical constituent with Rf value 0.12, 0.25, 0.47, 0.71 ; where the mobile solution was used Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid (5: 4: 1).

Conclusion: Result of the study may act as future standard for authentication of the genuine plant, Rhododendron arboreum Sm.(Pullas) which is used as a source of famous Ayurveda plant Rohitaka (the plant used for liver and spleen disorders) in Nepal. There is a scope of further scientific research to explore this important medicinal in future.

Open Access Review Article

Common Bile Duct Stone Exploration: T-Tube or Biliary

V. Grubnik, V. Ilyashenko, A. Tkachenko, A. Kovalchuk, K. Vorotyntseva, Grubnik Victor

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/36378

Introduction: Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) for choledocholithiasis is a popular option in many surgical institutes. Decompression of biliary system via T-tube post supra-duodenal choledochotomy has been the traditional surgical practice. Primary closure of common bile duct (CBD) has been shown to reduce hospital stay but bears a risk of bile leak. We conducted a prospective randomized trial to compare complications and length of stay in patients undergoing biliary stent insertion versus T-tube drainage following LCBDE via choledochotomy.

Methods and Procedures: The study involves 52 patients with choledocholithiasis who underwent LCBDE and decompression of the biliary system by either antegrade biliary stent or T-tube insertion. A 7 French biliary stent (9 “10 cm long) have been placed in 27 patients (group I), T-tube insertion have been used for 25 patients (group II). The length of hospital stay and complications were recorded. All transcystic explorations were excluded.

Results: There were no significant differences between groups with respect to age, sex, comorbidities, number and size of CBD stones. Postoperative complications have been observed in 4 patients (16%) in the T-tube group (one patient needed reoperation for dislocation of T-tube), and in 1 patient (3.7%) in the biliary stent group (p < 0.05). The mean postoperative hospital stay was 3.2 ± 1.2 days for group I, and 6.2 ± 1.7 days for group II (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: Our results showed a reduction of length of hospital stay and morbidity following stent insertion compared to T-tube drainage. Also, the use of biliary stent after LCBDE can reduce costs and increase patient satisfaction.