Open Access Original Research Article

Ultrasonographic Assessment of Amniotic Fluid Index in Normal Singleton Pregnancy among Igbo Women, South-Eastern Nigeria

Okeudo Chijioke, Ezem B. Uche, Uwakwe K. Anderson, Onoh C. Robinson

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/28018

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the mean Amniotic Fluid Index (AFI) and the upper and lower limits of normal value of AFI among Igbo women of South-Eastern Nigeria carrying uncomplicated singleton pregnancy at various gestational ages.

Study Design: A cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Obstetrics and Gynecology department of St Elizabeth Specialist Hospital, Owerri, Imo State from Jan 31 to Dec 31, 2015.

Methodology: This is a prospective cross sectional study of 400 women carrying uncomplicated singleton pregnancies. The AFI was obtained with the patient in the supine position and measurement of the largest vertical pocket of Amniotic fluids in the four quadrants done with abdominal probe. The AFI is the sum of these four quadrants.

Results: The age range of the women was 16-42 years with a mean age of 28.0 ± 4.8 years. The gestational age of the pregnancies was between 14 -42 weeks. The mean and median of AFI appear similar at 15.3 ± 5.6cm and 15.1cm respectively. The mean AFI for preterm was also similar to the total mean AFI with a value of 15.6 ± 5.7cm. The 5th percentile was 5.2cm while the 95th percentile was 25.3cm. The weekly AFI rose from 14 weeks gestation to a peak of 20.1 cm ± 4.5cm at a GA of 22 weeks.

Conclusion: The range of AFI among Igbo women of South-Eastern Nigeria extraction conforms to other internationally accepted ranges.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Antibacterial Activity of Libyan Honey against Gram Negative Bacilli: Potential Treatment Agent for Infectious Diseases?

Nouha Elmarbet, Mahmoud Ben Shaban, Basma Doro, Bashir A. Lwaleed, Sarah Fouch, Mohamed Elemam

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/39349

Aims: Honey has is a rich source of many compounds that exhibit anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic properties. The emergence of antibiotic resistance in a wide variety of bacterial pathogens has generated renewed interest in natural antimicrobials. The aim of the present study was to assess the antibacterial activity of Libyan honey in vitro.

Methodology: The antibacterial activities of selected Libyan origin honey including Libyan Spring, AL-Sader, Thyme and Al-Hanone (at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100 % (w/v)) were tested against Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis using agar well-diffusion assay. The measurement of exponential bacterial growth curves was used to determine the effects on the microbial growth pattern spectrophotometrically at 600 nm. In addition, plate count methods were used to enumerate the effects of honey on the viable bacterial count.

Results and Discussion: Honey progressively inhibited bacterial growth at higher concentrations. This effect was variable depending on the honey type. For example, Al Sader honey showed the highest inhibition zones 21.3 mm ±0.8 against P. mirabilis followed by Thyme (21 mm ±0.5) and spring (20 mm ±0.5).  Al-Hanone honey only exhibited effects against E. coli (14 mm ±0.5 and 8 mm ±0.4 at 100% w/v and 75% w/v, respectively). The Al Sader, spring and Thyme honey significantly reduced the Yersinia enterocolitica bacteria growth curve (p<0.05). All tested honey significant reduced E. coli growth from 5hrs compared to the control samples (p<0.05).

Conclusion: All honey tested showed inhibition of bacterial growth. Concentrated honeys were more effective against Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. The efficacy of different types of honey was dependent on the honey concentration and origin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Vitamin A Uptake in Nigeria: The Role of Contextual Factors

Tukur Dahiru, Khadija Hamza Liman, Suleiman Sa’id Bashir, Nura Mohammad Suleiman, Zara Zambuk, Mairo Mu’azu, John-Camillus Igboanusi, Ruth Oguntunde, Muhammad Bello Garba, Umar Mohammed Umar

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/38536

Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a public health problem in many low-income countries including Nigeria. Worldwide, it can be estimated that 190 million preschool-age children are Vitamin A deficient causing 1–2 million deaths annually. In Nigeria the prevalence of VAD is 29.5% with significant variations across the agro-ecological zones; and that only 43% of children aged 6-59months have received Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) in the past six months. We conducted a secondary analysis using the 2013 Nigeria DHS data with the objective of determining factors associated with receipt of VAS using a multi-level technique in which cluster characteristics were regarded as the community-level factors. The analysis involved a weighted sample of 25, 617 children aged between 6 and 59 months whom receipt of vitamin A supplementation was reported by their mothers. A number of individual, household and community level factors were found to be significant determinants of receipt of VAS: maternal education, working status of the mother, place of delivery of child, ANC visits, household wealth index and community levels of maternal education. These community-level factors are significant contextual determinants of VAS uptake contributing up to 96% of variation across the communities. Therefore, these factors should be considered in policy-formulation and programming aimed at improving VAS coverage in Nigeria that will lead to improved child health status and survival.

Open Access Original Research Article

Predictive Blood Parameters in Suspected Isolated Orbital Wall Fracture

Reşat Duman, Rahmi Duman, Ersan Çetinkaya, Mehmet Cem Sabaner

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/39889

Aims: This study aimed to study the predictive role of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in discriminating patients with or without orbital wall fracture in the acute period of blunt orbital trauma.

Materials and Methods: Thirty-one patients with orbital wall fracture and 31 patients without orbital wall fracture were enrolled in this comparative retrospective study. Complete blood count measurements including NLR and PLR performed in the acute period were analysed in all patients, and results were compared between 2 groups.

Results: Patients with orbital fracture had significantly higher NLR and PLR compared to patients without fracture (p=0.006, p=0.022).

Conclusions: NLR and PLR performed at acute post-traumatic period may be used as a diagnostic clue to detect an orbital fracture.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association of Depression with Atherogenic Index among Patients Attending a Cardiology Clinic in Southern Nigeria

Ambakederemo Tamaraemumoemi Emmanuella, Chikezie Uzoechi Eze

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/38216

Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a leading cause of death worldwide. Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) (log10 triglyceride TG/high density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C) predicts CVD risk. Depression is a common finding in patients with CVD and a contributory factor to cardiac related deaths and all-cause mortality. AIP has been found to be increased in patients with CVD who were also found to be depressed. We determined the prevalence of depression and its relationship with AIP in patients attending a cardiology clinic for various cardiac related ailments.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Methods: Ninety four adult patients were recruited. None of the patients were receiving cholesterol lowering medications or antidepressants. Demographic, clinical data and anthropometric measurements were taken. Fasting lipid profiles inclusive of HDL‑C and TG were recorded. AIP of -0.3-0.11, 0.11-0.24 and >0.24 were classified as low, intermediate and high risk respectively. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale was used to assess depressive symptoms. A score ≥16 on the CESD was used as an indicator for elevated depressive symptoms (EDSs) associated with clinical depression based on the diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM IV).

Results: Majority of the patients were middle aged (52.1%), married (73.4%), female (59.6%), overweight (41.5%) with tertiary level of education (44.7%). Prevalence of depression was 28.7%. Persons with primary education had reduced odds of being depressed compared to those with no formal education, 92% O.R 0.08 (0.001 - 0.89), p=0.04. The most common diagnosis was hypertension (69.1%). Others were heart failure (20.2%), stroke (7.4%) and ischaemic heart disease (3.2%). There was a significantly positive but weak correlation between AIP with CESD scores (r= 0.28, p= 0.006).

Conclusion: Comorbid depression in patients with CVDs are often missed, undiagnosed and untreated. Routine screening for comorbid depression is recommended, and further studies are needed to understand the interaction between atherogenic index and depression to improve morbidity and ensure long-term survival of patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical Staffs More Than Non-clinical Are Susceptible to Depression and Anxiety in a Psychiatric Hospital

Mojtaba YaghoubiPoor, Seyed Hamid Seyed Bagheri

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/39527

Anxiety and depression may cause employees increasingly poor performance. This study aimed to investigate the effects of occupation on anxiety and depression.

A total of 250 workers in a Psychiatric Hospital in Kerman participated and completed the BDI-II and BAI to determine their levels of anxiety and depression. All subjects were employed at one of two clinical and Non-clinical sections. Of all participants, 200 were employed in clinical jobs and 50 in Non-clinical employment.

Results indicated that the percentage of anxiety and depression and its severity in employees with clinical and Non-clinical occupation is significantly different. This difference in depression (P<0.01) is more evident than anxiety (P<0.05). According to our findings, the level of anxiety (P<0.05) and depression (P<0.01) in women significantly is more than men. Also unlike depression there is a significant relationship between anxiety with age (P<0.01).

Based on our study, clinical job workers had higher levels of anxiety and depression than those working in Non-clinical jobs. It seems that due to the stresses in the job environment and also their direct relationship with the patients, they are more susceptible to anxiety and depression. Our findings suggest that should consider the organisational risks faced by clinical job employees.

Open Access Review Article

An Overview of Class III Malocclusion (Prevalence, Etiology and Management)

Mohammad Jaradat

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/39927

The prevalence of angle class III malocclusion varies greatly among and within populations, with the greatest incidence being seen among Asian people. The etiology of class III malocclusion is wide-ranging and complex, with both environmental and genetic contributions. A class III malocclusion can be of dental or skeletal origin, so it is crucial to classify the malocclusion accurately in order to manage it on a sound clinical basis. This article sheds the light on the best timing and management approach class III malocclusion that develops during the pre-pubertal and post-pubertal years.