Ectrodactyly ectodermal dysplasia and clefting syndrome (EEC syndrome) is a rare genetic anomaly involving multiple structures and organ systems. It can be due to spontaneous mutation or autosomal dominant inheritance. The prevalence of this condition is 1-9 / 100 000 population. The common structures affected in this condition are the hair, nails, skin, eye, ear and the skeletal system.
This is the report of a 12 year old male child presenting to the paediatric OPD with complaints of hypohidrosis and febrile episodes past few months. There was no history of breathlessness or chest pain. On examination he was found to have alopecia, misalignment of teeth, clefting of both the lower extremities (absence of the second and the third toe on the right foot and the third toe on the left foot with syndactyly in both feet). There was no involvement of the eye and ear. There were no facial deformities. No cleft lip or cleft palate. External genitalia appeared normal. No abnormalities were found on renal ultrasound. The child was born of non consanguineous marriage. Younger sibling and parents are asymptomatic. He was provisionally diagnosed to have EEC syndrome.
Aims: The grooves and wrinkles over the sulci labiorum forms a specific pattern called lip print. Cheiloscopy is the study of lip printing. Lip prints are unique to an individual similar to finger prints and thus support in personal identification.
The aim of this study was to evaluate gender dimorphism by Cheiloscopy and to find out predominant lip patterns in Karachi population.
Study Design: This is a cross sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at different campuses of Ziauddin Hospital and Al-Zohra Welfare Association, Karachi from July 2016 to January 2017.
Methodology: The study population included 456 Pakistani subjects (253 males and 203 females) of aged 15 to 55 years. Lip print patterns were noted and studied according to Tsuchihashi’s classification. Chi square test was used for data analysis, p-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered to be the level of significance.
Results: A significant association was found between gender and lip pattern among Karachi population. The most common lip pattern in females were found to be type II followed by type III, where as type I’, type V, type IV and type I. However, in males type III was most dominant followed by type II, type I, type I’, type V and type IV are also to be found. In Karachi population Type III lip pattern was found to be predominant in 44.51% individuals followed by Type II in 31.6% individuals.
Conclusion: The study showed that lip prints hold a potential identity to the gender and population. This can be used as a supplemental tool for forensic science.
Background: Uterine fibroids, also referred to as uterine myomas, leiomyomas, myomatas, or simply fibroid are benign soft-tissue tumors that arise from uterine smooth muscle tissue (myometrium). They have been described numerously to be hormone-dependent and uterine structure-damaging, but the present study reports the implication of this soft-tissue tumor to the functioning and eventual anatomical change in the pituitary gland and the potential role of ginger extract in reversing the damages.
Aim: To understand uterine fibroids at the level of the pituitary gland, while studying the effects that aqueous extract of ginger will play in the Monosodium Glutamate-induced uterine fibroid.
Study Design: Experimental.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy, Benjamin S. Carson School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria between January 2017 and May 2017.
Methodology: Acclimatization lasted for 10 days following procurement, after which oral administration of Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) and Aqueous ginger extract ensued to determine the prophylactic, protective and curative effects of ginger on MSG-induced uterine fibroid in adult female wistar rats. Administration lasted for 50 days, after which the experimental animals were sacrificed via cervical dislocation, blood samples were collected for Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Follicular Stimulating Hormone (FSH) level determination and the pituitary gland was fixed in 10% formal saline for histological analysis.
Results: The MSG-induced uterine fibroid showed abnormal effects on the pituitary gland histology and in the level of Luteinizing and Follicular Stimulating Hormones, while ginger extract reversed this effect.
Conclusion: Ginger has fibroid-preventing and fibroid-reducing properties at the level of the pituitary gland. The results of this study may contribute greatly to knowledge and may offer a non-invasive therapy of treating women with fibroids.
Aims: To determine the prevalence of oral candida infection among HIV positive patients attending ART clinic of infectious disease hospital Kano and to establish the relationship between oral manifestations and the level of immunosuppression.
Study Design: The study design comprised of pre-test counselling, informed consent, collection of oral swab and sputum, clinical evaluation and recording of demographic information (such as age, sex, marital status, occupation, present address and smoking).
Place and Duration of Study: A total of 120 HIV positive patients attending ART clinic of infectious disease hospital (IDH) Fagge, Kano State-Nigeria were used for the study between October 2016 to January 31, 2017.
Methodology: 120 HIV positive patients were examined for candida infection by direct and laboratory based methods. CD4 T-cell counts were also done using flow cytometry.
Statistical Analysis: Results were subjected to correlation and chi-square test using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 22.
Results: Chi square test shows that 30 out of the 120 (25%) samples were positive for the infection. The distribution of patients with oral candida infection in relation to gender shows that more males were infected than females 20 (41.7%) and 10 (13.8%) respectively. Findings from this research have shown that, ART usage was 23 (22.5%) out 102(100%) among patients with candida infection and 81(77.5%) out of 102(100%) among patients without candida infection. A significantly higher prevalence of candida infection, 7(53.8%) out of 13 was observed among patients with CD4 count of ≤200 cells/ μL followed by 13(27.7%) out of 47 among patients with 200-500 cells/μL and 16.7% (10 out of 60) among patients with >500 cells/μL, respectively (p<0.001).
Conclusion: Treatment of opportunistic infections is key to successful ART program and in mitigating the impact if HIV/AIDS in resource constraint settings.
Aims: This study was conducted to determine the relationship between Body Mass Index and Absenteeism.
Study Design: This article is a retrospective.
Place and Duration of Study: This study included 905 eligible employees in the Saipa automobile factory in 2016.
Methodology: Demographic information, occupational characteristics and employees’ health status and information about employee’s absences were collected from health records of staff recurrent examinations filled out by experts and physicians and from the employee absentee registration system. Ultimately, the collected data were analyzed using SPSS, version 20.
Results: Of the 905 employees participated in the study, 141 (15.6%) had authorized absenteeism (due to ill) and 105 (11.6%) had Unauthorized absenteeism. With and without controlling for any potential confounders, the Gross Absence Rate (GAR), Sickness Absence Rate (SAR) were in overweight and obese employees more than normal weight employees (P-value< 0.05) but there was no significant difference between the two Absence Frequency Rate (AFR) and Unauthorized Absence Rate (UAR) indicators in terms of BMI (P-value> 0.05).
Conclusion: According to the results; obese employees are more often absent from work due to illness and absent longer. Also development and implementation of public educational programs with particular emphasis on high-risk individuals, and focusing on healthy lifestyle and workers can be effective, resulting in improvements in physical and general health of the personnel.
Aims: To determine the presence of malaria parasite and also examine the relationship between HIV infection and the severity of malaria.
Study Design: A hospital based prospective cohort study was carried out among 200 pregnant mothers living with HIV at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital through routine voluntary and confidential HIV screening.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano between July and December, 2016.
Methodology: Biomedical data was obtained and blood samples were aseptically collected in an EDTA container. Malaria screening, CD4 - T cell Count and Viral load were systematically performed using standard procedures. Chi-square test was used to establish statistical association between study variables where p-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered significant.
Results: Malaria prevalence was 141(70.5%) with 41(29.1%) having parasitaemia of ≥ 10,000/µl. Primigravidae had 69(48.9) and Multigravidae had 72(51.1) prevalence rates. The severity of infection was 27(65.9%) among those with CD4 count ≤ 200 cells/mm3. On the basis of viral load estimation, severity of the infection was higher 28(68.3%) among those with viral load ≥ 10000 copies/ml.
Conclusion: In view of the higher prevalence of malaria infection among pregnant mothers living with HIV, there is need for Antenatal care service to necessitate routing screening of malaria parasite and level of parasitaemia along with CD4 cells count and viral load test since the severity of malaria infection increased due to immunosuppression.
Aims: To evaluate the lipid profile and cardiovascular (CV) global risk of Brazilian HIV/AIDS patients before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and to study the impact of the intervention on the modifiable risk factors on CV risk.
Study Design: A prospective intervention study.
Place and Duration of Study: HIV/AIDS clinics of Teresópolis (RJ) - Brazil, between 2010 and 2012.
Methodology: This study included 129 adult HIV-positive patients; HAART had been prescribed for a minimum period of one year. Patients were evaluated at 3 different stages: (1) Stage A: previously to HAART, (2) Stage B: after receiving HAART for 1 year, and (3) Stage C: 6 months after the intervention on the modifiable risk factors (treatment of dyslipidaemia, Diabetes Mellitus and arterial hypertension, encouragement of smoking cessation and institution of healthy dietary habits).
Results: A significant elevation of serum levels of cholesterol (186.1 ± 53.6 to 205.4 ± 49.5 mg/dL, P = .01) and a reduction of HDL-C (44.7 ± 6.3 to 42.3 ± 7.3 mg/dL, P = .02) was found after the introduction of HAART. Conversely, a decrease in total cholesterol levels was observed after the intervention on CV risk factors (205.4 ± 49.5 to 188.0 ± 62.8 mg/dL, P = .03). The CV risk was significantly reduced after the clinical intervention on modifiable risk factors (P = .02), based on the appropriate Brazilian guidelines.
Conclusion: The study is in accordance with the literature regarding the alterations of lipid profile and CV risk secondary to HAART. Despite its limitations, the present study supports the importance of screening and intervening on the modifiable risk factors to improve CV risk in the Brazilian HIV/AIDS population.