Open Access Minireview Article

Could be Phytotherapy Implemented to Vaginal Discharge Treatment?

Tomáš Fait

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2017/34500

Background: Vaginal device NaturGyn Scarlett® (Shaanxi Zhongbang Pharma - tech. Co. Ltd) was developed thousands of years ago for treatment of vaginal discharge and discomfort. It contains 8 herbal substances at standardised percentage.

Methods: The efficacy of this corpuscle is nearly 90% according to some small observations studies but there is no evidence based on medical data. We reviewed the literature in MEDLINE for each of its substances.

Results: Efficacy of the corpuscle could be explained by contents of herbal drugs - Cnidii Fructus, Stemona Sessilifolia, Belvedere fruit, Wormwoodlike motherwort herb, Glabrous greenbrier rhizome, Chinese angelica root, Chinese ligusticum rhizome and borneol.

Conclusions: NaturGyn Scarlett® can be used either for chronic discharge management or as a part of therapy between eradication of pathogen and restitution of vaginal environment by probiotics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Associated Risks Factors for Menstrual Disorders among Undergraduate Students in Borno State, Nigeria

A. A. Kullima, S. M. Ibrahim, B. Isa, H. A. Usman, A. G. Mairiga, M. B. Kawuwa

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2017/29332

Background: Problems pertaining to menstruation are generally perceived among women as normal variation in body physiology and often not regarded as a serious health issue that requires public health attention. They only presents to our outpatient gynaecological clinics to seek medical attention when it become unbearable.

Objective: To determine the prevalence and assess the associated risks factors for menstrual disorders among undergraduates in Borno state.

Methodology: This was a cross sectional descriptive study, which was carried out among undergraduate students in Borno state, Nigeria. One thousand five hundred structured questionnaires were administered to ascertain the menstrual history, patterns, associated symptoms, any co existing gynaecological problem and abnormalities of menstruation. 

Results: Majority (72.2%) of the respondents  are nulliparous and only 514 (37.1%) have ever use any form of contraception while only 15.2% have ever experienced STDs or PID in the past. Normal menstruation was only observed among 33.5%, while the commonest menstrual abnormalities were dysmenorrhoea and premenstrual syndrome. Dysmenorrhoea and PMS are observed more in those age bracket <24years, There was observed strong association between past pregnancy with dysmenorrhoea, menorrhagea, PMS and oligomenorrhoea (P ≤ 0.001), while those who have not used any form of contraception have strong relationship with dysmenorrhoea, menorrhagea, polymenorrhoea and oligomenorrrhea with each having p ≤ 0.001. Equally the respondents who had STDs/PID have strong association to experienced dysmenorrhoea, menorrhagea, PMS, polymenorrhoea and oligomenorrhoea as complications of menstruation.

The commonest non gynaecological symptom observed among the respondents was headache accounting for 54.2%.

Conclusion: Abnormalities of menstruation is common among the undergraduate students in the study settings, the subjects in the study population should be enlightened through key stakeholders in the community at both formal (school, health institutions) and non formal (homes) settings to seek medical attention early to avert serious gynaecological conditions that may affect reproductive and sexual functions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Health Promotion of Young University Students in Lebanon: Physical Activity Behavior and Cultural Barriers

Ibtissam Sabbah, Hala Sabbah, Rania Khamis, Sanaa Sabbah, Nabil Droubi, Roman Leischik

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2017/34388

The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of physical activity (PA) and exercise behaviors in young students and to propose an evidence-based exercise practice program for undergraduates in a university setting in Lebanon.
Methods: From October 2014 to April 2015, a cross-sectional survey using mixed methods was conducted among 253 young university students. Information regarding the participants’ sociodemographic and environmental characteristics, experience with leisure time, physical exercise, and Stage of Exercise Behavioral Change (SEBC) were collected.
Results: The participants’ mean age was 19.5 years (SD=1.21), and 86.6% were women. In total, 8.3 and 23.7% of the participants were in the inactive stages of exercise behavior change (pre-contemplation and contemplation, respectively). A third (33.2%) of the students were in the preparation stage, and another third felt that they were in either the action (12.6%) or the maintenance (22.1%) stages (i.e., had regularly engaged in PA for longer than six months). There was a higher percentage of men than women in the action (23.5 vs.11.0%) and maintenance (32.4 vs. 20.5%) stages (P=0.002). Academic discipline was associated with PA behavior. Of the students who exercised, 99.4% were engaged in aerobic exercise and 70.9% were engaged in walking. University students reported many barriers to PA, including lack of access to facilities and resources (33.3%), lack of time (35.7%), and cultural and social context barriers (19%).
Conclusion: The present study is one of the first to provide data on PA behavior among young Lebanese students. Despite the need for further research on this topic, universities should develop and implement effective interventions based on the transtheoretical model of change to promote sports among young students, increase PA, and thus improve their well-being.

Open Access Original Research Article

General Purpose Media (BNO) for Growing Fastidious Gram Negative (FGN) Bacteria

Abdallah Bani Odeh, Issa Shtayeh, Mohammed Ayesh, Ismail Warad, Sameer A. Barghouthi

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2017/34450

General purpose media for growing fastidious pathogenic Gram negative (FGN) bacteria are limited to non-selective blood and chocolate agar. These suffer from excessive contamination with fungi, Gram positive, and Gram negative bacteria, especially Pseudomonas spp. MacConkey agar can be modified to grow Haemophilus, Helicobacter, Campylobacter and other FGN without the use of antibiotics. BNO100 and BNO70 media were based on MacConkey medium. BNO1-4 were Blood Agar Base containing crystal violet and no bile salts. All media were made as chocolate agar with 8% defibrinated sheep blood, yeast extract 0.5%, glycerol 0.5% (v/v), vitamins, and agar. Campylobacter jejuni ATCC29428 and Haemophilus influenzae were able to grow on all described media including BNO100. Helicobacter pylori ATCC43504 grew on all BNO media but not BNO100. Most BNO media were inhibitory for the growth of several Gram positive bacteria; Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus atrophaeus QUBC16, Staphylococcus aureus including three MRSA clinical isolates. C. jejuni and H. pylori were successfully grown on BNO media containing Dent’s, Skirrow’s, or Line’s selective antibiotic-supplements. MacConkey based BNO Chocolate agar media may be used as general purpose selective media for Gram negative bacteria including FGNs. We recommend the utilization of BNO70 and BNO2 for research and clinical sample processing involving FGN bacteria. The antibiotic-free BNO media reduced contamination with Gram positive and fungi. The incorporation of selective antibiotics and antifungal agents was compatible with the formulated BNO media; whereas Pseudomonas continued to pause a serious contamination problem.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical Tests to Determine the Correct Position of Central Venous Catheter in Overweight Patients in Critically Ill Condition

Álvaro José Montiel-Jarquín, Rodolfo Gregorio Barragán-Hervella, Jorge Loría-Castellanos, Eugenio García-Cano, Hugo Alejandro Solis-Mendoza, María del Socorro Romero-Figueroa, Ivet Etchegaray-Morales, Mario Gerardo Herrera-Velasco, Carlos Sánchez-Gazca, Miguel Cruz-Vázquez

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2017/34358

Objective:  To demonstrate the utility of clinical test to determine the correct placement of the CVC in overweight patients in critical condition.

Methods: Cross-sectional Study carried out in the Intensive Care Unit of the High Speciality Medical Unit of Traumatology and Orthopedics from Mexican Social Security Institute during 2014. The variables were age, sex, Body Mass Index and clinical diagnostic test. The placement of the catheter was done percutaneously, once the catheter was placed, clinical tests for determining the correct placement were done, verifying cardiac arrhythmias, test of venous return, measurement of Central Venous Catheter pressure and external length of the catheter. The statistics used was descriptive.

Results: Thirty-one patients were included. To all the patients clinical diagnosis tests were performed to verify the correct placement of the Central Venous Catheter (58%). The average Body Mass Index was 26. Of the catheters placed, 29.03% were central and 70.96% were misplaced, according to the chest x-ray. The arrhythmias were presented in 9.67%, with a specificity of 90%, and negative predictive value of 90%. The variations in central venous pressure were presented in 32.25% patients; the sensitivity was 20%, the specificity and negative predictive value were 60% respectively.

Conclusion: We found low sensitivity and good specificity for these clinical tests.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Presbyopia in a Peripheral Eye Clinic in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

C. S. Ejimadu, A. A. Onua, E. Ani

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2017/33717

Background: Uncorrected presbyopia is a significant and increasing cause of visual disability globally. Presbyopia is the decline of the focusing ability of the crystalline lens due to loss of elasticity which makes it less effective in accommodation. Presbyopia is primarily age-related and as the world’s population increases, ages and becomes more literate, cases of presbyopia correspondingly rises.

Aim: To evaluate the distribution of presbyopia among patients who presented at DDS Eye Centre and Surgery, Port Harcourt over a 3 year period of study.

Methods: A hospital-based study from January 2014 to December 2016. All the patients diagnosed with presbyopia who consented were recruited in this study. The patients’ ages, gender, relevant past medical and ocular history was recorded. Their refraction was done objectively with Rekto ORK 11 Auto Ref-Keratometer and later subjectively refined. Presbyopia was defined if subjects were unable to read N6 optotype with distance correction and if they were able to read at least one more line with the addition of a plus lens. Data were analysed with statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) 20.

Results: Eight hundred and thirty-six (180 males and 656 and females) participated in the study. The mean age was 54.2±12.4 years. Presbyopia occurred between the age range of 31 and above. The prevalence of presbyopia was higher among the female gender.

Conclusion: The age of presentation of presbyopia could be as early as 31 years in our local setting.  Females are more likely to develop presbyopia earlier than their male counterparts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Incidence and Outcome among COPD Patients Attending the Emergency Department of the King Abdul-Aziz Medical City Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Salem Al Qahtani, Noora Mumenah, Gadhah Al- Oshish, Sahar Al Joiser, Kavita Sudersanadas, Winnie Philip, Shoeb Qureshi

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2017/33207

Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common chronic lung disease.

Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the incidence and outcome among the patients attending the emergency department of the King Abdul-Aziz Medical City (KAMC) Hospital, Riyadh and receiving a discharge diagnosis of COPD.

Methods: We reviewed all the charts of subjects attending the Emergency Department of the KAMC (King Abdul-Aziz Medical City) hospital in the period, from 1 June to 31 September 2016. We analyzed the chart of all subjects receiving a diagnosis of COPD. They formed the subjects of this retrospective study.

Results: Two hundred and ten subjects accessed the emergency department into the study period. We selected 140 subjects with mean (±SD) age of 71.9 (± 9.84) years; males 54, 38.6 [p2] %) with a discharge diagnosis of COPD. The incidence of COPD was 1.9%. The outcome of COPD management indicated that the majority of the subjects discharged with home ventilation were 85 (60.7%), 30(21.4%) subjects were shifted to different wards, whereas 22 (15.7%) were discharged in stable condition, while 3 (2.2%) died.

Conclusion: The study revealed a high pervasiveness of COPD (66.66%) among the Saudi patients. The outcome of COPD ranged from living with home ventilation to mortality.