Open Access Case Report

Management of Radicular Cyst of Primary Molar: Case Report & Literature Review

Shilpi Tiwari, Sudhakar Reddy

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/33671

There are various inflammatory lesions seen in the oral cavity of children. Radicular cysts are odontogenic in origin and rare in the primary dentition, representing only 0.5 to 3.3% of the total number of radicular cysts in both the primary and permanent dentition. Treatment options for these cystic lesions include: endodontic therapy, extraction of the involved tooth, cyst enucleation or marsupialization. This case report describes surgical management of radicular cyst associated with an infected primary molar and a review of the literature.

Open Access Case Study

Bar-clip Overdenture – an Alternative Clinical Protocol for Restoring Completely Edentulous Patients

Isadora Rinaldi, Micheline Sandini Trentin, Maria Salete Sandini Linden, Pâmela Leticia Santos, Luiz Renato Paranhos, João Paulo De Carli

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/34062

Over dentures are removable prostheses with additional retention mechanisms on either the roots of remaining teeth or implants and provide improved stability and retention. This study the paper is not a study but a case report on the use of bar-clip overdentures.

Aimed: The purpose of this paper is to describe a prosthetic clinical protocol for treating the edentulous with a mandibular mucosal-supported and implant-retained bar-clip overdenture. In the presented case, the patient had functional and aesthetic problems with her current conventional dentures. Three osseointegrated implants were first successfully placed in the anterior mandible between the mental foramens. After the osseointegration period, customized molding procedures were utilized to make the overdenture prosthesis. Post-tratment clinical and radiographic examination revealed no painful symptomatology, infection, implant mobility, or acute peri-implant bone loss. The patient was satisfied with the aesthetics and prosthetic function. Thus, it could be concluded that overdentures are viable rehabilitation alternatives that promote satisfactory functional and aesthetic results in properly selected cases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prediction of Intrauterine Growth Restriction in High Pulsatility Index of Uterine Artery

Nidhi Sharma, Sunayana Srinivasan, Krishnamurthy Jayashree, Kulasekaran Nadhamuni, Meenakshi Subbiah, Vijayaraghavan Rajagopalan

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/34137

Introduction: Intrauterine growth restriction is a significant cause of neonatal mortality. The uterine artery Doppler waveform becomes transformed into a high flow with low resistance at 22-24 weeks. The apt way to reduce intrauterine growth restriction is to identify the antenatal factors, which ascertain the uterine milieu and nutrient bioavailability. This study was conducted to outline the relation between abnormal uterine artery flow and resultant intrauterine growth restriction in a tertiary care center.

Aim and Objectives: To study the Maternal risk factors and uterine artery Doppler waveform in singleton mid trimester pregnancy and predict the occurrence of intrauterine growth restriction.

Materials and Methods: This prospective study involved Doppler ultrasound examination of the uterine arteries at 20-23 weeks gestation in 697 women with singleton pregnancies attending a routine target scan. Intra Uterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) was recorded in 32 pregnancies.

Results: High Pulsatility Index (PI) (>95th percentile) as compared to low pulsatility Index confers a significant risk (31.58% v/s 2.19%) for Intrauterine Growth Restriction (p<0.05). Presence of high pulsatility is a significant risk factor for early onset IUGR as compared to late onset IUGR.

Conclusion: Abnormal Doppler waveforms within the uterine arteries are indicative of elevated resistance. The perfusion at the trophoblast-maternal interphase is high velocity, low volume and intermittent, resulting in intrauterine growth retardation. This subsequently leads to the damage of fetal tertiary stem villi floating in the intervillous space. The sensitivity is better for early onset IUGR. This study concludes that high pulsatility index in uterine arteries can lead to intrauterine growth restriction. The plausible explanation is reduced Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) from maternal decidual natural killer cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Results of Quality Control for Linear Accelerator at Oncology Center in Nouakchott

Ould Mohamed Yeslem Ahmed El Mouna, Ould Cheibetta Moussa, Choukri Abdelmajid, Ghassoun Jilali, Hakam Oum Keltoum, Semghouli Slimane

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/33918

The National Center of Oncology in Nouakchott is equipped with a linear accelerator which provides two energies in photon regime 6 MV and 18 MV.

The basic dosimetric data required for quality of operation, in the clinical routine of the accelerator for photon beams are percentage depth dose (PDD) curves and beam profile (BP) curves.

The aim of this work is to measure the percentage depth dose (PDD) and beam/dose profile (BP) for 6 MV and 18 MV photon beams for different field sizes and for different Skin-Source-Distance (SSD), and to compare the measured results with the results calculated by Treatment Planning Systems (TPS).

The measured results of (PDD) and (BF) are consistent with those calculated by TPS, which allows us to conclude that the linear accelerator at oncology Center in Nouakchott is in good condition.

Other Parameters: (energy, (SSD) and field sizes) have been also studied in this  work, in order to perform a comprehensive quality study for this accelerator a unique oncology at Mauritania.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Obesity and Its Effect on Blood Pressure Control in Bida, North-Central Nigeria: A Hospital Based Cross-sectional Study

Umar G. Adamu, A. Abdulahi, M. Z. Aliyu, F. Gbate, O. E. Agboola, K. P. Edem, I. Umenze, I. O. Ibok

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/33832

Background: Obesity is one of the commonest cardiovascular risk factor that affects blood pressure control, but there is lack of data regarding the prevalence of overweight and obesity in hypertensives and their relationship. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of obesity and its impact on blood pressure control amongst hypertensives in a rural hospital setting in North-Central Nigeria.

Study Design: Cross-sectional, hospital-based study.

Place and Duration of Study: Cardiology clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Bida, Northcentral Nigeria, between June and October 2013.

Methodology: We recruited 414 hypertensives (204 men, 210 women; age range 21-84 years) adults with arterial hypertension. The blood pressure was measured and data on anthropometric indices were collected using a questionnaire. The weight and height was measured, used to calculate the body mass index and to classify the participants into obese and nonobese.

Results: The mean age of the hypertensives was 53.09 ± 12.30 years. Out of the 414 participants, obesity occurred in 183 (44.2%) of the participants and more in those in the 45-54 years age range. Out of these, 93 (50.82%) had class I obesity, 55 (30.05%) class II obesity and class III obesity was found in 35 (19.13%) of the hypertensives. Blood pressure control was poor in 105 (57.4%) and 82 (35.5%) of hypertensives with and without obesity respectively. The BMI correlated with age r=-0.375 p=0.000, systolic blood pressure -0.181 p=0.014 and diastolic blood pressure r=0.439 p= 0.000.

Conclusions: The prevalence of obesity is high in hypertensive individuals even in a rural hospital setting and blood pressure control is poor in those who are obese. Public health measures aimed at reducing obesity should be incorporated in the overall management of arterial hypertension.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pattern of Pharmacotherapy of Patients Having Ischemic Heart Disease at a Specialized Hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh: A Survey Based Study on Patients Discharged from Hospital

A. H. M. Nazmul Hasan, Sk. Jahid Hasan, Md. Anzam Ul Islam, Afsana Awal Trina, Kanij Nahar Deepa, Md. Asaduzzaman

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/34107

Aims: Study on pharmacotherapeutic pattern on cardiovascular patients is rarely done. Patient’s demography, drug usage and its clinical outcome are the basis for the assessment of cardiac treatment. The aim of this study to analyze the demography of patients of ischemic heart disease along with drug usage and current trends of practice in Bangladesh.

Methods: This study was carried out over a period of two months at different units of NICVD, situated at Dhaka, Bangladesh. A structured questionnaire was prepared to collect necessary data from patients. Descriptive statistics was used to represent the data.

Results: A total 363 discharged patients were interviewed followed by the verification of their discharge report and other medical documents to obtain necessary information. Out of 363 patients, frequency of male patients were high (74.66%, N= 271) than female patients (25.34%, N=92). There is a trends of ischemic heart disease development after 40 years of age and found significant in this study (P< 0.05). In this study, 83.19% of total patients were above 40 years of age. We found a significant number of patients also had diabetes, asthma and chronic kidney disease. Treatment approach of ischemic heart disease includes pharmacotherapy, revascularization and percutaneous coronary intervention. 48 patients (13.22%) out of 363 went for revascularization and percutaneous coronary intervention was done to 25 patients (6.89%). The goal of Pharmacotherapy is to reduce blood cholesterol level, prevention of further platelet aggregation, reduction of angina and control of heart rate. In our study, we found that, statins, anti platelet and anti angina/anti ischemic drugs are core in the treatment of ischemic heart disease. Beta blocker, ACE inhibitor or ARB, CCB is commonly added to standard therapy to reduce mortality and for better therapeutic outcome. Among statins, the frequency of use of atorvastatin (87.93%), combination of clopidogrel and aspirin (73.90%) among anti platelet agents, combination of trimetazidine and nitroglycerine (61.56%) among anti angina/anti ischemic agents were highest. In our study, we found that bisoprolol was most commonly prescribed by the physicians among other beta blockers.

Conclusion: The outcome of this study will be helpful for young professionals, general physicians and other professionals involved in the health care setting for the rational use of drugs and to formulate effective strategy for the management of ischemic heart disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pattern and Trends of Respiratory Disease Admissions at the Emergency Paediatrics Unit of Jos University Teaching Hospital – A Four Year Review

Esther S. Yiltok, Helen O. Akhiwu, Christopher S. Yilgwan, Emeka U. Ejeliogu, Collins John, Augustine O. Ebonyi, Stephen Oguche

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/34099

Aims: Respiratory diseases contributes substantially to the number of Paediatric admissions and deaths especially in low income countries. Understanding the trends will help in health planning and resource distribution. This study is to describe the pattern and trend of respiratory diseases in children in a tertiary healthcare facility in north-central Nigeria.

Study Design:  This study was a retrospective study including all patients admitted and managed with respiratory diseases. The relevant clinical information was extracted from the hospital records.

Place and Duration of Study: The Emergency Paediatric Unit (EPU) of the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Jos Nigeria, between January 2012 and December 2015.

Methodology: A total of 2277 children aged 6 weeks-18 years were admitted into the unit within the study period. Out of these, 498 (21.9%) were diagnosed with respiratory disease. Clinical records were retrieved and reviewed. Those with inconclusive diagnosis as well as those with associated co-morbidities such as cardiac anomalies were excluded. The data collected were entered and analyzed using Epi Info version 7.2. Student t-test and chi-square test were used to analyze categorical and continuous variables respectively.

Results: Pneumonia accounted for 54.4% of total respiratory diseases. Cases of Pneumonia were mostly seen at the peak of the rainy and the harmattan seasons. (March, June/July and October/November). The highest number of cases of respiratory diseases were in the under-fives.  The commonest complication was congestive cardiac failure and it was commoner in the younger age group.

Conclusion: The prevalence of respiratory diseases remains high and contributes significantly to hospital admissions especially in the under five children. There is need to introduce new vaccines and re-enforce existing immunization against common organisms that cause pneumonia in children. There is also need to introduce policies that would ensure appropriate treatment for children to reduce the burden of these diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Facial Characteristics of Female Beauty and Age of Mona Lisa Using a Pictorial Composition

Niels Christian Pausch, Christoph Kuhnt

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/33453

Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the age of the Mona Lisa and the effect of painting composition on her beauty in terms of facial femininity, youthfulness, and attractiveness.

Study Design: We used a longitudinal study design.

Place and Duration of Study: We enrolled a random sample of dental students at the University of Leipzig, Faculty of Dental Medicine, between January 2015 and January 2016.

Methodology: The predictor variable was the portrait composition. To make the painting different, we substituted the faces in two other portraits (one male, Christian IV, Duke of Zweibrücken, and one female, Marie-Suzanne Giroust-Roslin) with that from the Mona Lisa. The outcome variables were estimated age, facial femininity, youthfulness, and attractiveness of the Mona Lisa. Appropriate descriptive and univariate statistics were calculated. The level of statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05.

Results: The sample comprised 107 subjects (76 females, 71%; 31 males, 29%) with a mean age of 24.8 ± 2.6 years. The panel estimated the Mona Lisa’s age at 32.3 ± 5.6 years. Facial femininity, youthfulness, and attractiveness were affected by painting composition (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest the Mona Lisa’s face is that of a woman in middle-aged adulthood. Her facial femininity, youthfulness, and attractiveness depend on the composition of the painting.

Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Role of Terminalia chebula in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Mice for Wound Healing Activity

Anurag Singh, Ragini Srivastav, Ajai Kumar Pandey

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/33137

Background: Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by high level of glucose in the blood. Wound healing becomes a challenging position to biomedical science when associated with diabetic peoples. It becomes delay in diabetic conditions. Terminalia chebula seeds may be a best alternative for the treatment of wound healing & antidiabetic activity.

Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protective role of seeds of Terminalia chebula in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice for Wound Healing Activity.

Materials and Methods: The rate of wound contraction and estimation of various biochemical parameters such as superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide levels in the granulation tissue of diabetic and non-diabetic mice were considered. The extract of Terminalia chebula with the concentration of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight was induced through intraperitoneal in diabetic and non-diabetic mice.

Results: The results showed that seeds of Terminalia chebula were a potent source of antioxidative phenolic compounds that counteract with reactive oxygen species responsible for delayed wound healing. The seeds of Terminalia chebula significantly increased the level of superoxide dismutase, nitric oxide and decreased lipid peroxidation in granuloma tissue of diabetic mice.

Conclusions: The methanolic extract of leaves of Terminalia chebula increases the rate of angiogenesis and improves antioxidant enzymes status that eventually leads to faster wound healing in diabetic condition. However, further studies are needed to explore the biomolecules present in the leaves of Terminalia chebula that lead to faster wound healing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phenolphthalein Method as a Simple and Low Cost Test for Detection of Fecal Occult Blood

Seyedeh Maryam Sharafi, Azar Balouti, Mahboobeh Hadipour, Hajar Yazdani, Morteza Yousefi, Hossein Yousofi Darni

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/34677

Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the main causes of cancer related death worldwide. Different investigation showed that screening with fecal occult blood is able to reduce incidence of colorectal cancer in a given area. To provide a simple and cost effective test for screening of colorectal cancer in this work sensitivity of phenolphthalein method in detection of occult blood has been investigated.

Methods: In this descriptive study alcohol pyramidon and phenolphthalein methods were used to estimate the minimum amount of human occult blood which can be detected in distilled water and fecal samples. Then 100 fecal samples were examined by the two tests.

Results: Alcohol pyramidon method detected minimum amount of 0.125 µL blood in 1 ml distilled water while phenolphthalein methods detected minimum amount of 0.0312 µL blood in 1 mL distilled water. In another experiment Alcohol pyramidon method detected minimum amount of 1 µL blood in 1 mL fecal sample while phenolphthalein methods detected minimum amount of 0.25 µL blood in about 1 mL fecal sample. Phenolphthalein method provided more positive results when 100 fecal samples were tested.

Conclusion: phenolphthalein method is a sensitive, simple and economy test for colorectal cancer screening which can be used both in labs and at home.