Open Access Short Communication

Human Exposure to Poultry and Poultry Products and the Risk of Death from Hematopoietic & Lymphatic Cancers

S. Bangara, N. Preacely, M. J. Felini, E. S. Johnson

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/34034

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to obtain preliminary information on occupational exposures responsible for the excess of hematopoietic & lymphatic (H&L) cancers previously observed in cohort mortality studies of workers in poultry slaughtering and processing plants.

Methods: A pilot case-cohort study was conducted nested within a combined cohort of 30,411 poultry workers and 16,408 controls, identified from several United Food & Commercial Workers (UFCW) unions across the United States. Interviewed cases were 48 deaths out of a total of 130 deaths (37%) from H & L tumors that occurred in the cohort between 1990-2003. Controls were N=152 subjects that were successfully interviewed out of 1516 subjects (10%) randomly selected from all cohort members alive as of January 1, 1990. Telephone interviews were obtained directly from live control subjects or next-of-kin for deceased cases and controls. Mortality risk was assessed using logistic regression odds ratios and hazard ratios.

Results: Poultry farming [OR=10.8 (95% CI: 3.0-39.1)] and spreading chicken wastes as manure [OR=5.6 (95% CI: 1.5-20.4)] were significantly associated with lymphoma; handling raw eggs in supermarkets [OR=4.3 (95% CI: 1.0-18.0)] was significantly associated with leukemia. Non-poultry exposures significantly associated with these tumors included coal by-products, selling seafood, and killing of pigs.

Conclusion: This preliminary study identifies possible occupational exposures that may be associated with excess deaths from H & L tumors in poultry workers. Case-control studies of sufficient statistical power are now needed to confirm these findings and discover new ones.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anemia-an Unnoticed Entity in Asian Males A Focus on the Anemic Parameters of Adult Males in Pakistan

Ayesha Nageen, Saera Suhail Kidwai, Farhat Bashir, Jamal Ara, Syed Muhammad Munir

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/33695

Background: There is a general lack of awareness that anemia could be present in a significant number of apparently healthy adult males which might then lead to a misdiagnosis and a prolonged suffering of the patient. This study questions the frequency of anemia in healthy adult males which if found high will be an eye opener and an alarm for the doctors.

Aims: This study was to determine the extent of anemia and its related parameters in apparently healthy adult males of a general population.

Study Design: A cross sectional, observational study.

Place and Duration of Study: The research was done in a tertiary care hospital, Creek General Hospital, Karachi from May 2016 to August 2016.

Methodology: we included 493 healthy adult males by convenient sampling. The exclusion criteria included males less than 18 years or with any organ insufficiency, terminal illness or blood dyscrasias or hemoglobinopathies. Complete Blood Count was done to mark anemia and to assess its severity. The Mean Corpuscular Volume was categorized as normocytic, microcytic, and macrocytic. The data was analyzed on SPSS version 20.

Results: Out of the 493 males, 238(51.4%) were anemic out of which114 (47.8%) were normocytic, 98(41.1%) were microcytic and 26(11%) were macrocytic (P=0.00). The severity of anemia among the 238 anemic males showed 164(69%) males to have mild anemia, 44(18.4%) to have moderate and 30(12.6%) to have severe anemia. (P=.000). The mean hemoglobin in males is 12.5 (STD±2.4).In younger age group (<30 years) of 210 males, 102 (42%) were anemic. In the middle age group (31- 50 years), out of the 165 that presented 76 (46%) were anemic while 118 patients in the elderly age group (> 50 years), 60 (51%) had anemia (P=0.72). There were 45 diabetic males, out of which 27(60%) were anemic and among them 20 had mild (74%) anemia and 18 (67%) were normocytic (P=0.049). In accordance to ethnicity, in decreasing order, 60% of Sindhis, 54% of Pashtuns, 51% of the Urdu speaking sector, 51% of Bengalis,46% of Gilgitis, 35% of Punjabis and 22% of Balouchis were anemic (p=0.04). 49% of Muslims, 35.7% of Christians were anemic. 168 were smokers in which 72 (42.8%) were anemic (P=0.132) with 46% being normocytic and 33% being microcytic. Logistic regression did not show any correlation between hemoglobin and age in the study.

Conclusion: Anemia is highly prevalent in the adult males- a fact which has remained unnoticed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Adhesion Promoter on Bond Strength of Reconditioned Brackets – an In vitro Study

Vikas Garg, Yuvika Mittal, Shefally Garg, Munish Goel, Sanjeev Soni, Sukhpal Kaur

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/29483

Objectives: To compare the shear bond strength of recycled orthodontic metal brackets using an adhesion booster and conventional primer and using the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) score to assess the site of debonding.

Materials and Methods: Eighty premolar teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups of 20 teeth each: Group A-New brackets and Transbond XT, Group B-Recycled brackets and Transbond XT, Group C-Recycled brackets and Transbond XT + Enhance LC. Brackets were recycled using sandblaster. Bond strength was tested on a universal testing machine and remnant adhesive on the tooth surface was determined. Kruskal Wallis test and Mann Whitney test were carried out to know the significant difference between the groups. Chi – square test was used to determine significant differences in the ARI (Adhesive Remnant Index) scores.

Results: Highest mean load was recorded in Group A (9.58±1.72 MPa), followed by Group C (8.60±2.05 MPa) and Group B (6.39±1.64 MPa). Chi- square test indicated significant differences (P=.002) in ARI scores. Group A and Group C were associated significantly for score 2 of ARI; Group B for Score 0 of ARI.

Conclusion: The bond strength of recycled orthodontic brackets with Transbond XT was significantly lower when compared to bond strength of recycled brackets with an adhesion booster. After recycling the brackets with sandblaster and using an adhesion booster, the previously debonded brackets gave the bond strength comparable to new brackets with Transbond XT. The ARI data showed statistically significant association between the ARI scores and the groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Tissue Penetration of Bipolar Electrosurgery at Different Power Settings

Rupert Ricks, Suzanne Hopcroft, Manish Powari, Andrew Carswell, Phillip Robinson

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/33773

Introduction: Bipolar electro-surgery is used in all disciplines of surgery to aid in haemostasis. Although common sense dictates tissue penetration will be effected by power settings, no formal evaluation of this effect has been made. We performed an experiment to accurately measure the tissue penetration of bipolar diathermy at different strengths.

Materials and Methods: Laboratory study using a porcine liver model. Different wattages (10–40 W) of bipolar electro-surgery were applied to deceased porcine liver, with and without fascial covering for a fixed duration. The tissue penetration was measured with a light microscope in two planes, horizontal and perpendicular. The data was compared with a Spearman Rank correlation coefficient calculation.

Results: For both fascia and non fascia covered liver there was a statistically significant correlation between increasing power and superficial spread of tissue penetration (Non fascia rho=0.3604, p =0.05) (Fascia rho=0.893, p =0.0068). No such correlation was noted between burn depth and wattage (Non fascia rho=-0.75, p =0.93) (Fascia rho = 0.714, p = 0.0713). There was a statistically significant correlation between the diameter and depth of tissue penetration for fascia covered tissue (rho 0.893, p = 0.0068) but not for non fascia covered tissue (rho 0.3604, p =0.42).

Discussion: There is a clear relationship between the power setting of electro surgery and superficial spread of tissue damage however the effects of power setting and deep tissue penetration are not so clear. Interestingly, maximum tissue effects were not encountered at the higher power settings but between 20 and 30 W.

Open Access Original Research Article

Utilization of Emergency Care – A Retrospective Study at the University of Szeged, Hungary

Agnes Maroti-Nagy, Zoltan Peto, Péter Kanizsai, Katalin Virag, Edit Paulik

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/33811

Aims: In Hungary, there are limited data available on the demographic data and disease characteristics of patients requiring emergency care. The aim of this study was to explore disease distribution by age and sex of inpatient casualty admissions in Hungary.

Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Emergency Medicine (DEM), University of Szeged, from June 2014 to June 2015.

Methods: Data were retrieved from the hospital’s information system. Altogether the data of 2344 adult inpatients were involved into our analysis. Patients’ data were analyzed without the possibility of identification. The study protocol was approved by the Medical Research Council, Scientific and Research Committee of Hungary (No. 578/2014).

Results: The number of female patients (54%) exceeded the number of male (46%) patients. The mean age was 64.06 years (range: 20–103 years); the largest proportion of the sample (42.8%) came from the “above 70 years” age group. The most frequent conditions of admission were non-specific chest pain (18.2%), hypertensive crisis (7.9%), alcohol abuse (6.6%), pain in the lower abdomen (5.0%), and syncope (4.5%). 12.8% of the patients were transferred to other health care units; the leading causes were decrease in body fluids (11.7%) and septicemia (7.3%). Complications occurred in 6.0% of the patients; anemia (5.7%) and volume depletion (5.7%) occurred most frequently.

Conclusion: The majority of the patients presenting to the DEM in Szeged, Hungary were mainly elderly women and the most frequent causes of the admission were diseases of the circulatory system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potential Neuro-therapeutic Effect of Flaxseed Oil on the Striatum of Rotenone Mice Model of Parkinson’ Diseases

Philemon Dauda Shallie, Olugbenga Olawole Olayinka, Helen Bassey Akpan, Olutoye Jibrin Otulana, Oluwole Ojo Alese, Bamidele Richard Babatunde, Damilola Joseph Talabi, Oluwadamilola Faith Shallie

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/34207

Aim: This study investigated the potential neuro-therapeutic effect of Flaxseed oil on the striatum of Rotenone mice model of Parkinson’ diseases’

Study Design: Fifty-six adult male and female mice (Mus musculus) weighing between 23.9-26.3 grams were used for this study. The mice were randomly placed into four groups of fourteen mice each made up of equal number of male and female: A (Control; mice pellets), B (Rotenone 3 mg/kg, IP), C (Rotenone + Flaxseed oil 0.3 ml orally), and D (0.3 ml Flaxseed + Rotenone).

Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Anatomy, Olabisi Onabanjo University. Between May and September, 2016.

Methodology: The brain were excised, weighed and appropriate sections taken and processed histology and stained with H&E and Nissl stains and immuno-cytochemically with GFAP.

Results: The results showed significant (P<0.05) reduction in the neuronal cell count, body and relative brain to body weight, which were increased by flaxseed oil treatments. Rotenone induced neural and striatal bundle degeneration which were ameliorated by flaxseed oil treatment.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the reduction in weight and neuronal derangements associated with rotenone induced Parkinson’s disease in this study were reduced or alleviated as a consequence of the treatment with flaxseed oil, and hence flaxseed oil could be considered as a potential therapeutic candidate in the management of Parkinson's disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Ethanol Extract of Distemonanthus benthamianus (Aayan) Baillon (Fabaceae) on Streptococcus mutans

O. O. Mebude, B. A. Adeniyi, T. O. Lawal

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/26954

Objectives: The objective of this research was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Distemonanthus benthamianus on Streptococcus mutans.

Methods: The antimicrobial activities of ethanol extract of Distemonanthus benthamianus was done on Streptococcus mutans using the agar well diffusion technique.

Results: The ethanol extract exhibited significant antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria with zones of inhibition between 15±0.1 mm to 20±0.2 mm at 6 mg/ml. The phytochemical analysis of the plant revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenol, steroids, and tannin. The MIC and MBC of the extract against the sensitive organisms was determined and was in the range of 15.6 µg/ml to 1000 µg/ml and 31.25 µg/ml to 1000 µg/ml. The ratio of MIC to MBC falls within 1 and 2, which is an indication of the bactericidal activity of the plant extract. The kinetic study revealed a reduction in the number of viable organisms with increase in contact time between the organisms and the extract.

Conclusion: This result justifies the use of Distemonanthus benthamianus in folkloric medicine for the treatment of dental caries diseases caused by Streptococcus mutans in Nigeria.