Open Access Case Study

Impacted Lower Third Molar and Its Relation to the Inferior Alveolar Nerve: The Importance of CBCT for Surgical Planning and Treatment. Clinical Case Report

José Ricardo Vancetto, José Luiz Paredeiro, Marcelo Gonçalves, Andrea Gonçalves, Guilherme Monteiro Tosoni

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/33591

Aims: This clinical case shows the importance of computed tomography as a complementary exam for the surgical planning and treatment of impacted third molar extraction surgery when it is in close contact with the inferior alveolar nerve.

Presentation of the Case: This study reports a clinical case where an impacted lower third molar indicated for extraction had its roots in intimate contact with the inferior alveolar nerve, requiring a cone beam computed tomography for the planning and execution of the surgery.

Discussion: Although the CBCT scan subjects the patient to a higher dose of radiation compared to panoramic radiography, it offers a 3D view of the local anatomy, preventing possible accidents and complications related to the surgical procedure.

Conclusion: Computed tomography showed to be of great importance when the panoramic radiography does not allow a correct visualization of the relation of the inferior alveolar nerve with the tooth to be extracted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality of Life among Moroccan Women Undergoing Treatment of Breast Cancer

Bouchra Haddou Rahou, Karima El Rhazi, Zaki Hanchi, Fatima Ouasmani, Bouchra Benazzouz, Samir Ahid, Abdelhalem Mesfioui

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/33772

Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate quality of life of Moroccan women with breast cancer and studied its association with clinical and demographic characteristics.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out from July 2014 to July 2015 at the National Institute of Oncology in Rabat. The sample consisted of 400 patients with breast cancer recruited for face-to-face interviews. Data were collected using a questionnaire addressing personal and clinical characteristics and Moroccan versions of EORTC QLQ C30 and BR 23 to measure quality of life.

Results: The mean age of participants was 48.2years ±10.2. Most of them were married (61%), illiterate (65%) and the majority (86%) were housewives.  Participants scored fairly well on global health status/QOL scale (Mean 53.4; SD 17.7).Cognitive functioning scored the highest with a mean of 64.6 on a scale of 100. Whereas role functioning scored the lowest (25.5). For the BR-23, all functional scales received scores below 50. Regression analyses showed that age, marital status, chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy were statistically significant in predicting patient’s quality of life.

Conclusions: Our finding highlighted functional, psychological and social difficulties with which live Moroccan patients with breast cancer.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of Malnutrition-dependent Factors among Under-five Children in Ekureku Community, Abi Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria

Etim, Kimboline Donatus, Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina Idu, Kalu, Randymay Eja

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/30204

Malnutrition is the consumption of dietary nutrients either insufficiently or exclusively, and several socio-economic, ignorance, and educational factors are known to determine nutritional status of any community. This study aimed at examining the nutritional status and malnutrition-dependent factors in Ekureku Community. With a cross-sectional design, 380 mother-child pair respondents were selected using systematic sampling technique. Nutritional anthropometry and questionnaire were used to gather data. Data collected were entered and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Student t-test and Chi-square were used to test for inferential statistics at 5% level of significance. Results show that 108(28.4%) of under-five children were stunted, 47(12.3%) wasted and 107(28.1%) underweight. Malnutrition was observed to be significantly higher among females than male children (P < 0.05). Children aged >24 months were more stunted (22.4%), wasted (9.5%) and underweight (22.1%) than children <24 months. Most respondents (54.2%) had poor knowledge of child nutrition, while 45.8% had a fair knowledge. Respondents (35.0%) breastfed their babies exclusively, while 63.0% introduced complementary feeding when their children were less than six months old. Factors such as poor maternal education, sex of child, unemployed women, knowledge of child nutrition and poor feeding practice were found to be associated with malnutrition among under-five children. These findings indicate that malnutrition is high among under-five children and may increase child morbidity and mortality in the community.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pre-hospital Use of Oral Rehydration Therapy and Zinc and the Risk of Dehydration in Childhood Diarrhoea

Tinuade A. Ogunlesi, Michael T. Olowonyo, Tamramat I. Runsewe-Abiodun

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/33648

Background: Diarrhoea is a leading cause of childhood mortality globally. The use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) with zinc supplementation is recommended in the treatment of childhood diarrhoea.

Objective: To determine the pattern of pre-hospital use of ORT and zinc among children with diarrhoea at the secondary levels of health care in Nigeria.  

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted over a six-month period at two secondary health facilities among children with diarrhoea. A structured questionnaire was administered on consenting caregivers and the level of dehydration was also determined. 

Results: Out of 109 under-five children, 93 (85.3%) were aged < 24 months; 79 (72.5%) mothers were aware of ORT use but only 56 (51.4%) actually used ORT. Fifty (45.9%) mothers were aware of zinc use but 33 (30.3%) actually administered it. Fifty-nine (54.1%) children had dehydration; 60.9% of children who had ORT with zinc and 60.5% of those who received neither ORT nor zinc were dehydrated. ORT use was significantly associated with zinc use but had no association with dehydration, rather vomiting was significantly associated with dehydration (p = 0.03).

Conclusion: More than half of the children studied presented at the secondary level of care with dehydration despite high maternal awareness and use of ORT. Zinc use was low in this population. Due to vomiting and feed refusal, the impact of ORT and zinc in the prevention of dehydration was obscure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Moringa oleifera Enriched Diet Ammeliorates the Toxic Effects of Palm Wine and Local Gin (Ogogoro) on Some Biochemical Parameters in Albino Rats

Okwari Obem, Kolawole Tolunigba Abisola, Oluwatayo Beatrice Olatundun

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/29479

The effect of Moringa oleifera enriched diet on the toxic effects of palm wine and local gin on liver enzymes, lipid profile and electrolytes in albino rats was determined in this research.

Methodology: Thirty female albino wistar rats, aged 8 to10 weeks, weighing between 170 and 200 g were used for the study. They were divided into six groups of five rats each. Group 1 served as the control group (given normal diet),  group 2 rats were given Moringa oleifera enriched diet only, group 3 rats were given 10 ml/kg bwt of palm wine only and fed a normal diet, group 4 rats were given 0.03 ml/kg bwt of local gin and fed a normal diet, group 5 rats were given 10 ml/kg bwt palm wine with Moringa oleifera enriched diet and group 6 rats were given 0.03 ml/kg bwt of local gin with Moringa oleifera  enriched diet. Palm wine and local gin were administered to the rats daily using an oral cannula for 30 days. On the 31st day, the rats were sacrificed and blood was collected through cardiac puncture for the determination of some liver enzymes, lipid profile and electrolytes.

Results: The results of this study showed that Moringa oleifera enriched diet significantly decreased (p<0.05) the activities of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and significantly increased (p<0.05) the levels of total protein and albumin when compared with the control rats. Also, Moringa oleifera enriched diet caused significant decrease (p<0.05) in the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol; with significant increase (p<0.05) in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol when compared to control rats. Treatment with the extract significantly lowered (p<0.05) the levels of urea and creatinine in Groups 3, 4 and 5 rats compared with Group 2 rats. Furthermore, the significant reduction (p<0.05) in the levels of sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate was reversed by, treatment with M. oleifera enriched diet.

Conclusion: The results suggest that the Moringa oleifera enriched diet could possibly ameliorates the toxic effects of palm wine and local gin on some biochemical parameters in rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Bone-implant Interfacial Stress during Disocclusion in Complete Implant-supported Prosthesis: A Finite Element Study

Gustavo Diniz Greco, Carolina Nemesio de Barros Pereira, Giovani Lana Peixoto de Miranda, Guilherme Carvalho Silva, Cláudia Silami de Magalhães, Allyson Nogueira Moreira

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/33607

Aim: Little is known about the biomechanical behavior of disocclusion patterns in implant-supported prostheses. Thus, the aim of the present study was to analyze the stresses generated at bone-implant interface during different patterns of disocclusion in an implant-supported lower complete denture without free distal ends using the three-dimensional (3-D) finite element method.

Study Design: Finite element method.

Methods: A 3-D model of a complete denture supported by five inter-foraminal implants and two distal was developed (CAE software Abaqus). A canine guide disocclusion (CG) was simulated applying a nodal load of 15 N at an angle of 45° on the canine tooth prosthesis, while to a bilateral balanced occlusion (BBO) a similar load pattern was applied at four distinct points, bilaterally. Linear elastic static analysis was used to compare the magnitude of maximum and minimum principal stresses at bone-implant interface for each simulation.

Results: The disocclusion pattern generated during CG exhibited a greater stress concentration at the bone-implant interface of the distal implant on the working side. BBO showed a more homogeneous stress distribution pattern at the bone-implant interface of the two distal implants. Anterior implants showed lower stress concentration.

Conclusions: Bilateral balanced occlusion (BBO) resulted in a more favorable stress distribution in this complete implant-supported prosthesis model.

Open Access Review Article

Evolution and Exploration of Azadirachta indica in Dentistry: An Update

Abhaya Gupta, Umesh Pratap Verma, Nand Lal, Sanjeev Kumar Ojha

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/33538

Despite great achievements globally in oral health of populations, dental caries and periodontal diseases are the most important oral health burdens particularly among under-privileged groups in developed and developing countries. Nonetheless, oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer reported globally with an annual incidence of over 300,000 cases, of which 62% arise in developing countries. Apart from the traditional therapeutic modalities available so far that are usually synthetic drugs, researchers are presently discovering unexplored horizons of herbs for curing these ailments. One such beneficial herb is Azadirachta indica (Neem) that has been widely accepted throughout the world for its innumerable medicinal properties. The limitless benefits of neem has been documented in Indian traditional medicinal books like ‘Charak – Samhita’ & ‘Sushruta – Samhita’. Neem tree has been valued long back, since centuries by the Indian citizens for cleaning the teeth, skin diseases, consumption as a tonic & eradicating worms etc & many more. The present review discusses the in-vivo, in-vitro and animal studies utilizing the electronic databases Pubmed, Embase and Google Scholar till 31st December 2016 that highlights the medicinal properties of this wonder herb from oral health point of view suggesting its role as anti-gingivitis, anti-microbial, antiplaque, anticandidiasis, anti-periodontitis, effective endodontic irrigant, dental erosion therapy, anticaries & oral cancer therapy. Although the results are encouraging, but more scientific validation is required so that the incorporation of this ayurvedic herb into modern dentistry could be justified.