Open Access Case Report

The Role of Anorectal Physiology Tests in Ulcerative Colitis; Challenging 3 Cases

Ozdal Ersoy, Eser Vardareli, Umit Sekmen, Hulya Hamzaoglu, Melih Paksoy, Nurdan Tozun

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/26699

Benign functional anorectal disorders such as faecal incontinence or constipation can be concomitant issues in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) whether the main disease is under control or not and they lead to negative impact on patients’ quality of life. However, reports regarding these anorectal disorders and anorectal physiologic features in patients with IBD are rare and routine diagnostic tests and therapeutic options for these pelvic floor disorders reported by IBD patients are often underused. Anorectal physiology tests are important in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, to better diagnose any symptomatic and concomitant anorectal functional disorders in order to avoid unnecessary medical or surgical therapies and to tailor the most suitable treatment modalities for the patients. Three challenging patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) under deep remission but having different defecatory and functional bowel problems are summarized here, under the guidance of specific anorectal physiology tests.

Open Access Short Research Article

Ultrastructure of Thyroid and Parathyroid Bodies in Case of Hypocalcemia and Hypercalcemia

Makhmudova Ziyoda Takhirovna, Yuldashev Akram Yuldashevich, Yuldasheva Manzura Akramovna

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/26278

Aims: To analyze ultrastructural transformations of parafollicular cells of thyroid body and main cells of Parathyroid body in case of experimental blood hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia.

Place and Duration of Study: Tashkent State Dental Institute, between April 2015 and October 2015.

Methodology and Study Design: White outbreed male rats with the mass of 130-140 g were split by 3 groups based on content of the free calcium ions in the blood serum: normal (benchmark, n=10); low (hypocalcemia, n=40); high (hypercalcemia, n=40). Experimental intraperitoneal administration of 2,5% ethylenediominotetraacetic acid and 10% Calcium gluconate during 1, 3, 6 and 10 days resulted in hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia consequently, in elevation and reducing the parathormone contained in the blood.

Results: In case of the normal content of the calcium ions in the blood, the main, oxyphilic, intermediate and cambial cells were identified. The main cells as the most numerous ones are characterized with oblong form and small size. The nucleus is large, located eccentrically, the nucleolem may be even, sulcated, with invagination, and nucleoplasm is rich with euchromatin.

Conclusion: Hypocalcemia after ethylenediominotetraacetic acid introduction in 1, 3, 6 and 10 days is activating B type cells. Hypercalcemia after calcium gluconate introduction in 1, 3, 6 and 10 days causes hy Parathyroid body po-function.

Open Access Original Research Article

Age, Gender and School Class and Retention of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Knowledge among Secondary School Students in Nigeria

Adedamola Olutoyin Onyeaso

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/26404

Background/Aim of Study: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an important element in the “chain of survival” for the treatment of victims of cardiac arrest. Bystander CPR is a strong predictor of long term survival and bystanders with previous CPR training are more likely to perform CPR. This study aimed at assessing the CPR knowledge retention six weeks after the initial training, as well as the influence of age, gender and school class on CPR knowledge.

Study Design: Quasi-experimental study design was used.

Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt between October and December, 2012.

Methodology: A group of students selected from different schools had pre-training, training programme, post-training and retest assessments of their CPR knowledge. Modified AHA form was used in data collation. Video-tapes, songs, power points lectures and hands-on using manikin were employed during the teaching.

Results: The students significantly retained CPR knowledge six weeks after training (P < 0.05), while age, gender and school class did not have any significant influence on CPR knowledge (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: The Nigerian students can serve as a reliable target in increasing the number of bystanders for positive public health impact, and their age, gender and school class might not matter in their CPR knowledge acquisition and retention.

Open Access Original Research Article

Real Time Cell Analysis of Model Target Cell Lines Exposed to Purified Lipoprotein (a)

Alice Santonastaso, Claudia Scotti

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/26869

Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is a novel independent cardiovascular risk factor and it includes, beyond apoB100, apolipoprotein (a), whose molecular weight is dependent on the number of genetically encoded kringle IV type 2 repeats and inversely related with Lp(a) plasma concentration. Risk thresholds for molecular weights have been proposed, but there is not a full consensus and the role of the different isoforms in pathogenesis has not yet been clarified. The aim of the present work is to explore the biological effect of low and high molecular weight Lp(a) isoforms on cultured cells. Real-time impedance analysis has been performed on model cell lines of atherogenesis and Lp(a) metabolism (THP-1, HUVEC, HASMC and HepG2) using affinity purified Lp(a) with 22 (low number) and 31 (high number) kringle IV type 2 repeats, respectively. Normalized Cell Index data show that all the cell lines tested are modified by Lp(a), though with a variable intensity. Low and high molecular weight Lp(a) isoforms at similar concentrations can exert opposite modifications on the impedance kinetics of different cell lines. These data suggest that purified Lp(a) can modify the behaviour of adherent cell lines, an effect which can be detected as impedance variation and which is influenced by its specific isoform.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Correlated with Low Birth Weight in Ghana

Anthony Mwinilanaa Tampah-Naah, Lea Anzagra, Elijah Yendaw

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/24881

Aim: The aim of the paper was to assess factors associated with low birth weight in Ghana.

Study Design: The study applied a cross-sectional population-based study design.

Place and Duration of Study: The study used data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011 of Ghana.

Methodology: The dependent variable was birth weight and the independent variables were selected maternal factors (age, ever attended school, currently married or living with a man, wealth quintile, area, region, delivered by caesarean section, times received antenatal care, took medicine to prevent malaria and parity). Binary logistic regression model was generated to assess factors associated with low birth weight among mothers. Statistical Product for Service Solutions (SPSS) version 20 was used for the data processing and analysis.

Results: Mothers who had never attended school (OR = 0.566, 95% C.I. = 0.349 – 0.919) were less likely to have children with low birth weight, and those not in union (OR = 1.698, 95% C.I. = 0.993 – 2.905) had a higher likelihood of giving birth to children with low birth weight.

Conclusion: Maternal factors such as educational status and marital status can influence the birth weight of a child in the country. Prenatal programmes, especially on nutrition and counselling, should be designed targeting sub-groups of women who are at risk of delivering babies with low birth weight.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Evaluation of Nursing Students’ General Health and Its Relationship with Their Grade Point Average

Zahra Ayazi, Masoomeh Moezzi, Zohreh Amiri, Jaefar Moghaddasi, Reza Masoudi, Seyed Mohammad Afzali

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/26214

Introduction: Developments of any society are driven by a trained staffs and identify the factors affecting academic performance improvement is a step towards success in the community. Students are also required dynamism and promote community and assessment of their general health status, is an essential element in the community health program. This study was designed aimed to determine the evaluation of nursing students’ qeneral health and its relationship with their grade point Average.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 1391 with collaboration of 127 nursing students in Shahrekord University of medical sciences, after earned a grade point average, completed personal information, and the standard general health questionnaire (GHQ-28). Data were analyzed with used descriptive and inferential statistical tests in SPSS software (version 19) at P≥ 0.05 significant levels.

Results: Results showed that the general health of 28.6% of students were normal, 51.4% relative health and 20% unhealthy. In this regard, the general health of male students was better than female. The highest prevalence of disturbances was depression and then sleeps disorders, anxiety, physical and psychological, and social dysfunction. Factors such as marital status and employment status were significantly related to students' general health status. In this study there was a significant negative correlation between general health and the average score of students (P= 0.001). Senior students (forth-year), has the highest grade point Average and third-year students, with the best general health status.                                            

Conclusions: The results of this study showed that, students with high academic performance in comparison to other students had better genaral health. Therefore, it should be more concerned to plan the high quality education for promoting life skills and designing communication programs for increase the support activities of families and authorities for psychological assessment and promote their general health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Norovirus Infection in Community Children with Acute Gastroenteritis in Savar Area, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Shamsun Nahar, Mohammad Showkat Mahmud, Sabiha Sultana, Mohammad Bazlul Karim Choudhury, Salequl Islam

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/25944

Aims: We sought to investigate norovirus burden in patients with complications of acute gastroenteritis in community level in Bangladesh. Thus, the aim of this study was to detect the incidence of norovirus in stool samples collected from study subjects with acute gastroenteritis who attended voluntarily in different community clinics at Savar area, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Methodology: The study enrolled patients from different community clinics in Savar area during July 2012 to December 2012. Stool specimens were collected in supplied stool container from patients as part of their diagnostic procedure. Viral RNA was extracted from the samples using the QIAamp® viral RNA mini kit (Qiagen, Germany). Real-time RT-PCR assay was conducted to identify different norovirus genogroups in the stool samples.

Results: We detected norovirus exclusively in 23.8% (10/42) of the stool samples where rotavirus was absent. Over 80% patients were aged less than 2 years and all 10 norovirus-positive samples were detected within this age range (P = 0.17). Detection rates for norovirus was the highest in July and the lowest in November among the months covered in the study. Genogroup analysis of detected noroviruses showed 1(10%) as GI, 8 (80%) as GII and the remaining 1 (10%) as the mixture of GI and GII genogroups.

Conclusions: This study has provided baseline incidence of norovirus diarrhea in patients attended at community hospitals in Savar area, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The infections were exclusively in children aged less than two years. Norovirus genogroup-II was predominant in the community infections covered under this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Potential of Polyphenol Rich Extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa

Abiodun Olusoji Owoade, Adewale Adetutu, Olubukola Sinbad Olorunnisola

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/26742

Aims: Hibiscus sabdariffa is a medicinal plant species that is consumed for its health benefits in Africa, therefore this study investigated the antioxidant properties of Hibiscus polyphenolic rich extract (HPE), prepared from Hibiscus sabdariffa.

Place and Duration of Study: School of Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool, United Kingdom, between June 2009 and December 2010.

Methodology: The antioxidant assays evaluated the scavenging abilities of HPE: Firstly against superoxide ions generated during the xanthine oxidase mediated breakdown of xanthine to uric acid. Secondly against ABTS (2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline 6-sulfonic acid)) radical cation generated by filtering a solution of ABTS through manganese dioxide powder and potassium persulphate. Finally metal chelation ability of HPE against Iron ions (Fe2+) induced oxidative damage in cultured Jurkat-T cells was also assessed.

Results: The results showed that 1.0% and 2.5% (v/v) diethyl ether extract of HPE significantly inhibited superoxide ions by 42.35 and 100.00% respectively. The extract also inhibited uric acid production, which suggest that components of HPE inhibit xanthine oxidase activity. In addition, it was found that HPE scavenge ABTS radical cations in dose dependent manner. HPE inhibited Fe2+-mediated lipid peroxidation in cultured Jurkat-T cells supplemented with 0.5 mg/ml and 1.0 mg/ml of HPE by 19.67% and 31.69% respectively, metal chelation ability was identified as a potential mechanism behind this observed reduction.

Conclusions: HPE is rich in different phenolic compounds; therefore strong antioxidant potential of HPE observed in this study may be related to their polyphenolic constituents. This study demonstrated that Hibiscus sabdariffa is an efficient antioxidant plant species in vitro and may be beneficial in reducing oxidative damage to lipid and thus prevent or reduce the development and progression of free radical mediated diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Can Open Fracture Debridement Improve Postoperative Wound Infection?

Ghada Barakat, Masrour Abdel latief, Mohamed Mostafa, Mohamed Morsy

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/26497

Damaged soft tissues provide an ideal environment for bacterial growth and subsequent infections. This study was to evaluate the spectrum of bacterial contamination of predebridment and postdebridment measures in patients with open fractures and to study the best timing suitable for eradication of the micro-organism in a tertiary hospital. These studies was conducted over 112 patients open fracture wound episodes with or without overt signs of infection were included in this study. A patient is considered to have an open fracture wound infection when clinical signs and symptoms of infection were present. Four swabs were taken for each patient, the first was taken as pre debridement swab, the second was post debridement swab, the third swab was after 3 days after debridement and the fourth was 7 days after debridement. Specimens were examined aerobically and anaerobically. Of the 112 wound specimens examined by Gram stain, 66.96% were positive for the presence of bacteria. The Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria accounted for 58.66% and 41.33%, respectively. S. aureus (44.2%) was the dominant isolate. The most effective drugs against the tested Gram-positive were amoxicillin/clavulonic acid, erythromycin, vancomycin, cefuroxime and ampicillin. Whereas, the most effective drugs against the tested Gram-negative bacteria were gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, tazocin, imipenem and aztreonam. Postoperative bacterial infection can be decreased if debridement was done at optimum time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Apparently Healthy Young Nigerian Women

Bolaji Oyetunde Oyelade, Abiodun Christopher Jemilohun

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/26472

Aim: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common in the general population, compromise quality of life and may result in increased health care costs for the society. We observed that many of the studies previously published focused on middle aged and elderly men and women. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of LUTS among apparently healthy young Nigerian women.

Methodology: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among 223 female medical and nursing students of the Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, aged 18 to 34 years. All participants completed the International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire for Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (ICIQ-FLUTS).

Results: The mean age of the participants was 23.88±2.89. The overall prevalence of LUTS was 55.2% and the overall prevalence of those that were bothered was 23.2%. Storage phase symptoms (nocturia, urgency, daytime frequency and painful bladder) were common among respondents. Of these, nocturia was the commonest with 35.0% prevalence. Voiding symptoms (hesitancy, straining and intermittency) were also found. Straining at micturition and intermittency were the commonest of these, occurring in 7.2% of respondents. Urinary incontinence was found in 15% of respondents [urge (9.4%), stress (6.7%), nocturnal enuresis (2.2%) and overflow (0.9%)]. Among those that had any LUTS, 34.1% were bothered and this association was statistically significant (P = <0.0001). Of those with storage symptoms, 30.1% were bothered; 22.6% of those with voiding symptoms were bothered and 27.0% were bothered among those with urinary incontinence.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that LUTS are common among young Nigerian women and a significant proportion of them are bothered by these symptoms.