Open Access Case Report

Therapy Taping Method: Therapeutic Approach in Two Children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

Cristina Iwabe-Marchese, Nelson Morini Jr

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/24176

Objective: To assess the effect of elastic bandage through the Therapy Taping Method on the execution of motor functions of children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD).
Methods: Two children with confirmed clinical diagnosis of DMD that visited the physiotherapy clinic at Metrocamp College were selected. Their degree of motor function was assessed by Motor Function Measure -20 Scale (MFM-20), performing then a month of physical therapy in the therapy pool without the use of bandage, in order to verify the primary functionality degree. After this period, the subjects were reassessed according to the mentioned scale, starting the application of the bandage technique in oblique muscles and quadriceps bilaterally, in conjunction with the treatment in hydrotherapy. The bandages were exchanged weekly, in a total of 24 weeks. The data was analyzed by comparing results before and after the treatment.
Results: The scores of the MFM-20 scale remained the same as the initial assessment after the hydrotherapy sessions without the use of bandage. However, there was an increase in scores after the combination of the use of elastic bandage with hydrotherapy.
Conclusion: The elastic bandage using the Therapy Taping Method allowed increased execution capacity of the motor activities of these children with DMD, slowing the development of symptoms.

Open Access Case Study

Frontocutaneous Fistula Secondary to Frontal Sinusitis

Peter Appiah-Thompson, Eric Kofi Ngyedu, Anna Konney, Benedicta Appiah-Thompson

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/25084

Frontocutaneous fistula is a rare complication of frontal sinusitis. This mostly occurs as a result of osteomyelitis of the frontal bone on account of sinusitis. These are managed by endoscopic closure or by external approach depending on the cause and extent of sinusitis. We report on the case of a 57 year old man who presented to our ENT Unit with a defect on the face medial to the right eye.

Open Access Study Protocol

Performance of New Biomarkers of Nephropathy in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

M. P. Natividade Manuelle, P. Domingueti Caroline, Fernandes Ana Paula, B. Fóscolo Rodrigo, S. Reis Janice, M. S. Dusse Luci, S. F. Oliveira Camila, A. Haddad João Paulo, C. Godoi Lara, B. Gomes Karina, P. B. Magalhães Henrique

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/23476

Introduction: It is known that laboratorial tests (urinary albumin excretion and glomerular filtration rate), routinely used for nephropathy diagnosis in type 1 diabetes (T1DM), have limitations that justify the evaluation of new renal biomarkers. This study assessed the performance of cystatin C, alkaline phosphatase (AP) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) for nephropathy diagnosis in T1DM patients. The reduction of economic cost and increase in sensibility and specificity from correct biochemical diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy is an important objective of this work.

Methods: Cystatin C, AP and GGT were determined in plasma and urine of healthy individuals (N=35) and T1DM patients with (N=45) and without nephropathy (N=80).

Results: The plasma levels of cystatin C, AP and GGT, as well as urinary levels of cystatin C and AP were able to differentiate diabetic patients with and without nephropathy. Plasma cystatin C better followed the progression of albuminuria. Cystatin C and AP discriminated the onset of nephropathy in T1DM patients better than creatinine. AP plasma/urine ratio progressively increased from the controls to the diabetic patients without and with nephropathy.

Conclusion: The plasma levels of cystatin C and AP may be useful, with the classical markers of renal function, for nephropathy diagnosis and monitoring in T1DM patients.

Open Access Minireview Article

An Introduction to Proprioception Concept in Pilates and Yoga

Alicia Garcia-Falgueras

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/25540

Our brains are continuously and unconsciously integrating proprioceptive information together with the visual and vestibular systems through synapses in neurons, interneurons and motoneurons connections to the brain motor cortex and cerebellum to inform about our overall sense of body position, movements and acceleration in balance. Those natural complex integrations and calculations to have a posture are improvable through knowledge and physical exercises or activities. Professional athletes have been training and working out on their specific proprioceptions during many years, till reaching excellence in some of their complex movements. We explained in this text some basic ideas about proprioception, balance and homeostasis and suggest briefly some Pilates and yoga exercises as examples that are aimed to upgrade them.

Open Access Minireview Article

Aminoff Suffering Syndrome: A Challenge for Medical and Nursing Staff during End-of-Life Care: Open Letter and Proposals

Bechor Zvi Aminoff

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/25371

The diagnosis of Aminoff Suffering Syndrome in advanced dementia determined by measuring the suffering level of patients according to the Mini Suffering State Examination (MSSE) scale —facilitates acceleration and intensity of care by the nursing staff in order to prevent and relieve suffering. Relief of Suffering Units for patients with Aminoff Suffering Syndrome should be an integral part of any medical department or nursing home that specializes in caring for elderly people. Aminoff Suffering Syndrome at the end of life could, and should be diagnosed, prevented and diminished. The treatment of patients with Aminoff Suffering Syndrome at the end of life is a genuine challenge for medical and nursing personnel. Our proposals for further experimental studies at the end of life are the diagnosis of Aminoff Suffering Syndrome in dying patients with cancer, AIDS, cardiac, pulmonary, kidney, liver and other terminal diseases. We recommend that such studies should be performed at all medical settings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Reinforcement Material on the Intestinal Stump Staple Line-The Effect and Mechanism of Reinforcement

Masahiro Kimura, Yukio Terashita

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/25657

Background: In gastrointestinal surgery, the quality of anastomosis is one of the most important factors influencing the postoperative course. The purpose of this study was to verify the effectiveness and the mechanism of one type of reinforcement material.

Methods: We analyzed the effect of Neoveil on the rate of staple line failure. Fresh pig small bowel was used. Neoveil sheets were placed on the anvil alone, cartridge alone or both sides of the stapler. Groups were: A, without Neoveil; B, the cartridge and anvil; C, the cartridge alone; D, the anvil alone. The burst pressures were measured.

Results: In group A, a leak occurred at the intestinal stump in 5 of 10 cases (As). In the other 5 cases, the mesenteric side burst before failure of the staple line (Am). In groups B, C, and D, the mesenteric side burst before failure of the staple line. The median leak pressure was 100±46 mm Hg in group A (As; 57±6, Am; 143±12). In the other groups, the leak pressures were approximately 140 mm Hg. In group As, the middle staple only exists on the edge of stump. In group Am, however, both sides of the 3-row staple line exist on the edge of stump.

Conclusion: The burst pressure of the stump became the result of the bipolarization. The strength of the stump staple line is affected by the arrangement of the staples. Neoveil was effective in obtaining a stronger staple line.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Investigation of the Retinal Layers in an Experimental Model of Multiple Sclerosis; a Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Study

Leila Roshangar, Nayyer Akbari, Amaneh Mohammadi, Mehdi Farhoudi, Jafar Soleimani Rad, Hamid Tayefi, Behzad Nikzad

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/23983

Background: Animal model of multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating and inflammatory disorder of central nervous system and eye. Histological evaluation in eyes in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models demonstrated evidence of retinal atrophy and inflammation in late stage of disease. Deciphering the relationships between the retinal atrophy and proliferation on retinal layers may help us in understanding the factors that drive atrophy and proliferation in multiple sclerosis.

Aims: The aim of the present study was to determine alterations in thickness of retina and its sub-layers in MS induced mice model in comparison with control group.

Study Design: Experimental study.

Methodology: EAE was induced in female C57BL/6 mice using Hooke kits. Animals were scored for clinical signs of the disease according to 10-point EAE scoring system. At 35th day after immunization, mice (n=15/group) were deeply anesthetized and eyes were removed.

Morphometric study of proliferation in retinal sub-layers were assessed by Hematoxilen and Eosin staining and expression of Ki67. The proliferating marker was performed by Ki67analyzing kit. All measurement obtained by Motic image analyzer software 2 and analyzed spss 18, respectively.

Results: Here we reported that retinal thickness in MS group including total retinal layer, especially photoreceptor layer, ganglion cell layer and neural layer reduced in comparison to control group (p< 0.001). In Ms Group proliferation rate is also decreased in comparison to control group (0.05).

Conclusion: Our results show that ki67 expression, as an indication of proliferation, decreased in retinal layers in MS group. Furthermore, our data revealed that retinal thickness also decreased in MS group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Tithonia diversifolia in Experimental Animal Models

A. O. Sijuade, J. O. Fadare, O. A. Oseni

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/25267

Aim: The common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and opioids have adverse effects. This has motivated for the search of new drugs with decreased or no side effects. In the present study, we investigated analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanol extract of Tithonia diversifolia in vivo.

Methods: Analgesic activity of the methanol extract of T. diversifolia was carried out using an analgesy meter to measure the tolerance of induced pressure. The method of carrageenan-induced inflammation in rat was used for the anti-inflammatory effect.

Results: This study shows statistically significant improvements in pain resistance and paw oedema suppression were observed in animals treated with 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) methanol extract of Tithonia diversifolia, when compared to control groups treated with normal saline and acetyl salicylic acid. The maximum analgesic effect was achieved at 300 mg/kg after 30 min with effective ratio of 5.92 when compared with the standard drug acetyl salicylic acid, and twice the activity of 150 mg/kg at the same time.

Conclusion: The results suggest that the plant extract has analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, supporting its uses in traditional medicine.

Open Access Original Research Article

BK Virus Prevalence in the Plasma of Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Awaiting Renal Transplantation

Mediha Boran, Ertay Boran, Ebru Gök Oğuz, Mertay Boran

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/25345

Aims: BK virus (BKV) infection in renal transplant recipients is an important problem. Although pre-transplant hemodialysis (HD) patients undergo routine screening for cytomegalovirus, herpes virus and other viruses, and post-transplantation receive antifungal, antibacterial and CMV prophylaxis, BKV infection, including viruria and viremia, has been ignored. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of plasma BKV positivity in 100 HD patients.

Study Design: Prospective observational study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Nephrology, Hemodialysis and Transplantation, Turkiye Higher Education Hospital,  and Department of Nephrology, Ankara Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Training and Research Hospital, Nephrology Department, Turkey; between March 2014- June 2014.

Methods: The study population consisted of 41 female and 59 male (mean age: 46.1±12.3 years) HD patients from different units (median dialysis history: 60 months; range 24–132), who were awaiting renal transplantation and 25 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (10 females and 15 males; mean age: 44.6±7.8 years). The exclusion criteria for patient selection were HD patients with residual diuresis and age > 65 years. Because the absence of diuresis was among the study’s inclusion criteria, only the prevalence of BKV in plasma was determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

Results: BKV replication  was  not detected in the plasma samples of either the controls or the HD patients.

Conclusions: Whether there is virological variance and changing virulence in BKV over time in pre- or post-transplant patients remains to be determined in future studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Immunological Profiles of Mice Protected from Chlamydia-induced Infertility by Anti-caspase Treatment

C. E. Ukwade, O. A. T. Ebuehi, J. U Igietseme, S. Ouburg, J. A. Land, Y. Omosun, K. Joseph, J. Partin, Q. He, F. O. Eko, D. Ellerson, C. Bandea, S. A. Morre, G. Zhong, C. M. Black

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/23921

The study is to investigate the effect of anti-caspase treatment on anti-chlamydia immune response in mice. Both the humoral and aspects of cell-mediated immune response against Chlamydia trachomatis were studied. Antibody response was measured using the ELISA technique to identify all common isotypes, and cytokine response was measured using the PCR technique. The antibody levels (IgG, IgG1, IgG2a and IgA) in Z-VAD-FMK treated group were significantly higher than non-treated group. ELISA results [showed a significantly higher amount of antibodies (IgG, IgG1, Ig G2a and IgA)] were produced in the mice that were pre-treated with Z-VAD-FMK before infection with Chlamydia trachomatis compared to mice post treated with Z-VAD-FMK after Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Data of the study indicate that the caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK did not negatively affect humoral and T cell mediated immune responses against C. trachomatis in mice.