Open Access Original Research Article

Levels of 43 Trace Elements in Hyperplastic Human Prostate

V. Zaichick, S. Zaichick

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/25275

Aims: The aim of this exploratory study was to clarify the differences between the prostatic levels of trace elements in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and healthy male inhabitants.

Methodology: We prospectively evaluated the prostatic levels of 43 trace elements in 32 patients with BPH and 32 healthy males. Measurements were performed using instrumental neutron activation analysis with high resolution spectrometry of long-lived radionuclides combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

Results: In the hyperplastic prostates a significant increase in the mean level of Bi, Cr, Hg, Sb, and Se and a significant decrease in the mean level of Ce, Cs, Dy, Er, Gd, Ho, La, Mo, Nd, Pb, Pr, Sm, Sn, Tb, Tm, U, and Y was observed.  It was not found any differences in the mean prostatic level of Ag, Al, Au, B, Be, Br, Cd, Co, Fe, Li, Mn, Nb, Ni, Rb, Sc, Th, Ti, Tl, Yb, Zn, and Zr between BPH-patients and healthy males.

Conclusion: Present study finding of trace element contents and correlation between pairs of trace element mass fractions indicates that there is a great disturbance of prostatic trace element metabolism in BPH gland. Obtained data did not confirm a critical role of Cd and Pb accumulation in the pathogenesis of BPH. A potential age-related Zn, Fe, and Se deficiency in the prostate has not been found as being involved in the etiology of BPH. This work data cast doubts on a beneficial effect of the Zn, Fe, and Se supplementations on BPH prevention and treatment. Additional studies of other chemical elements in BPH are planned.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Soft Tissue Profile Change Following Bi-maxillary Surgery in Dento-skeletal Class III by Photogrammetric Analysis

Andrea Torroni, Giulio Gasparini, Alessandro Moro, Gianmarco Saponaro, Enrico Foresta, Paolo De Angelis, Daniele Cervelli, Camillo Azzuni, Roberto Boniello, Luca Pallottini, Anna Borelli, Giulia Jafari, Sandro Pelo, Roberto Deli, Giuliana Longo

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/25350

3D analysis allows for simulation of orthognathic surgery and prediction of aesthetic and functional outcomes. Our study aims to find common and repeatable parameters on the behaviour of soft tissues following bone movement by pre- and post-treatment by photogrammetric analysis. Three representative patients who underwent bimaxillary surgery of advancement/retrusion of the jaws for correction of class III dento-skeletal malformation were presented. By overlapping pre-operative and post-operative 3D photos we obtained colour and millimetric maps that allowed the objective appreciation of facial soft tissues modification in all planes of the space after orthognathic surgery. The study disclosed interesting insight into the soft tissue behaviour following orthognathic surgery and highlighted the possibility to draw reliable dissipation curves of facial skin after orthognathic surgery. This study also provided the base for future development of 3D images analysis (3D VTO) to plan and predict aesthetic outcomes of patients with dento-skeletal malformation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Lawsonia inermis L. Leaves Methanol Extracts on Gingivitis Healing (In vivo Study on Sprague dawley Rats)

Zubardiah Lies, Sudiono Janti

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/24997

Lawsonia inermis L. leaves has been used to healing wound and antibacterial caused of active content like essential oils, steroids, triterpenes, saponins, flavonoids and tannins. Lawsonia inermis L. leaves methanol extract showed effective against S. sanguinis with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) at 31.250 µg/mL and no toxic as tested in mice and human gingival fibroblasts. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of L. inermis L. leaves methanol extracts to heal gingivitis in Sprague dawley rats. Forty subjects were divided into group A (n=30) and B (n=10). A group created artificial inflammation in the mandibular labial gingiva with 10% H2O2. Group A was divided into 3 groups of treatment, positive, and negative control groups. Treatment groups were given Lawsonia inermis L. leaves methanol extract in 3 concentrations (62.500, 31.250, and 15.625 μg/mL).  Positive and negative control groups were given povidone Iodine 1% and aquabidest respectively. Group B as an healthy rats group was divided into 15.625 μg/mL concentration and aquabidest groups. Histopathological changes were observed on day 3 by the condition of gingival epithelium, epithelial connective tissue relationships, and the distribution of inflammatory cells. Statistic analysis showed no difference in healing between the three concentrations of Lawsonia inermis L. leaves methanol extract and povidone iodine (α=0.694>0.05) while there were differences among the 3 concentrations. Higher concentration (62.500 µg/mL) can accelerate the inflammatory cells reduction and epithelial connective tissue relationships repair. It was concluded that Lawsonia inermis L. leaves methanol extract can heal gingivitis at concentration up to 62.500 µg/mL.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Correlates for Tinnitus among Elderly Subjects: A Community Study

Olusola Ayodele Sogebi, Olorunfemi Emmanuel Amoran, Emmanuel Abayomi Oyewole

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/25337

Aims: To determine the prevalence, and explore clinical correlates for tinnitus among elderly subjects.

Study Design: Cross sectional community-based analytical study.

Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted in Sagamu community for a period of six weeks between 1st April and 18th May, 2015.

Methodology: Consenting elderly subject (aged ≥ 60 years), who lived in the communities for a minimum of five years continuously were selected by multistage stratified sampling technique. Estimated sample size was 216 subjects. Interviewer administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic, otological and other systemic diseases parameters. The main outcome measure was Tinnitus present or absent. The data obtained was subjected to descriptive, uni and multivariate logistic regression analyses, LRA.

Results: 212 elderly subjects completed the study. Prevalence of tinnitus according to socio-demographic characters revealed significant differences between age groups (p= 0.016), sex (p=0.010), level of education (p=0.005) and family settings (p=0.001). Univariate analyses revealed significant differences in previous ear discharge (p=0.019), previous ear syringing (p<0.001), previous loss of consciousness (p=0.004), observed hearing loss (p<0.001), confirmed hearing loss (p<0.001), exposure to noise (p<0.001), tendency to depression (p<0.001), and osteoarthritis of knee joint (p=0.045). Multivariate adjusted LRA confirmed previous ear syringing for wax impaction OR=6.863, 95% CI, 1.043-45.149 (p=0.045), observed hearing loss OR= 2.755, 95% CI, 1.116-6.800 (p=0.028), exposure to noise OR=50.213, 95% CI=5.358-70.542 (p=0.001) and tendency to depression OR=2.600, 95% CI, 1.000-6.759, (p=0.049) as clinical correlates for tinnitus among elderly subjects.

Conclusions: There is high prevalence of tinnitus, with clinical correlates being otological and audiological parameters. Noise regulation and need for proper care for elderly at the community level were emphasized.

Open Access Original Research Article

Salvigenin has Potential to Ameliorate Streptozotocin-induced Diabetes Mellitus and Heart Complications in Rats

Hamid Mohammad Sadeghi, Amirhossein Mansourabadi, Mohammad Ebrahim Rezvani, Mojtaba Ghobadi, Nastaran Razavi, Mahmood Bagheri

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/25156

Objectives: Flavonoids are the active ingredients, found in herbal remedies for amelioration the variety of disorders. Salvigenin is a plant flavenoid, which is found in Salvia officinalis. Salvigenin has an antioxidant, anti-inflamatory, anti-tumor and vascular relaxant activities. This study was conducted to evaluate the possible antidiabetic and cardioprotective effects of salvigenin.

Materials and Methods: 32 wistar rats were made diabetic using streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, i.p.). Rats were divided into four groups that treated with salvigenin at doses of 5, 10 or 25 mg/kg. All the treatments were administered orally for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the blood samples were collected for determining the FBS, HbA1C, insulin, triglyceride, cholesterol and HDL. After 72 hrs, animals were anesthetized; hearts were removed quickly and mounted on Langendorff apparatus. The max pressure, heart rate, max dP/dt, contractility index and coronary flow were measured.

Results: Administration of salvigenin exhibited a significant reduction in fasting serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HbA1c and increased level of plasma insulin and HDL in diabetic rats (P<0/05). Salvigenin could significantly increased hemodynamic indices such as max pressure, max dP/dt, contractility and coronary flow (P<0/05).

Conclusion: Salvigenin improved diabetes through decreasing blood glucose, lipid profile, HbA1c. Increased insulin secretion can be a mechanism for antidiabetic effect of salvigenin. Regarding the antidiabetic and cardioprotective effects of salvigenin, it can be concluded that this flavonoid compound can be potentially used to reduce diabetes and it’s cardiovascular complications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Significant ACE Gene Haplotype Stipulates Development of Type 2 Diabetes in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Parul Aggarwal, Nutan Agarwal, Krishna Dalal, Mohamed M. Jahromi

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/25383

Introduction: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) plays a key role in glucose and insulin regulation, and in the onset of diabetes. ACE gene polymorphisms A240T, C1237T, G2350A and I/D located in the promoter, coding and non-coding regions have been studied in both type-2 diabetes and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, their impact on the development of type-2 diabetes post GDM remains unknown, especially in under-represented population.

Aim: We examined possible associations and networking between ACE gene polymorphism susceptibility / protection towards/against progression of type-2 diabetes post GDM in North Indian women.

Methods: Two hundred and twenty four women (n = 224) were recruited in this study and genotyped for four ACE gene polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by digestion through restriction endonuclease enzymes.

Results: Study results suggest a significant association of ACE genes SNPs A240T, C1237T, G2350A and I/D haplotype with GDM cases progressing to type-2 diabetes later in life (P =.02). Individuals possessing haplotype “CAAI” derived from these SNPs had a 3.65 fold increased risk of type-2 diabetes development in GDM cases later in life relative to other haplotypes.

Conclusion: Due to its pivotal role in the pathogenesis of both diseases, the current finding might be of future therapeutic value. Larger-scale studies are required to confirm this novel finding in multi-ethnic populations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bone Marrow Mast Cell Density Correlates with Circulating Biomarkers of Bone Disease in Multiple Myeloma

Rodanthi Vyzoukaki, Maria Devetzoglou, Constantina A. Pappa, Andreas N. Antonakis, Samer Masud, Anastasia Papadopoulou, George Tsirakis, Michael G. Alexandrakis

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/25402

Aims: There is increased mast cell density (MCD) in multiple myeloma (MM) bone marrow (BM) that is correlated with advanced disease stage. Mast cells (MCs) produce various mediators promoting MM growth and bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether BM MCD correlates with markers of bone metabolism, such as circulating levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG), soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (sRANKL), osteopontin (OPN) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha).

Study Design: This is a cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Medicine, University of Crete, Department and Laboratory of Haematology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Haematology and Internal Medicine, Venizelion Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Haematology, General Hospital of Chania, between January 2010 and December 2014.

Methodology: All parameters were analyzed by ELISA. We studied 56 active MM patients (32 males, 24 females) and 20 healthy controls. According to ISS 14 patients were in stage I, 22 in stage II and 20 in stage III. MCs were highlighted in BM immunohistochemically, using monoclonal antibody to MC tryptase.

Results: All values were higher in active MM patients compared to healthy subjects (p<0.001 for all cases). OPG was decreasing in advanced stages (p= 0.018), whereas all other values were in parallel with ISS disease stages (p<0.001 for all cases). Moreover, BM MCD correlated positively with sRANKL, OPN and MIP-1 alpha (p<0.0001 for all cases), and negatively with OPG (r= -0.279 p<0.03).

Conclusion: MCs are increased in MM BM and participate in many aspects of the disease. They may release various cytokines increasing myeloma growth and also may participate in the skeletal disease of MM rendering them as potential targets for therapy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Patterns of Abscesses of Soft Tissue in Spinal Tuberculosis: Frequency, Topography and Therapeutic Means of 311 Cases Observed in Abidjan (Ivory Coast)

Mohamed Diomandé, Viva Sessou-Toho, Ehaulier Soh Christian Louis Kouakou, Abidou Kawélé Coulibaly, Mariam Gbané-Koné, Baly Ouattara, Kouassi Jean Mermoz Djaha, Edmond Eti, Jean-Claude Daboiko, Marcel N’zué Kouakou

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/25282

Background: The research of soft tissue abscesses in spinal tuberculosis is important and can help in the diagnosis of certainty. These abscesses also have a prognostic and therapeutic interest. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency, topography and the therapeutic means of the abscesses of soft tissue in spinal tuberculosis.

Methodology: This descriptive retrospective study covered 311 cases of patients (167 men and 144 women, age range 4-88 years) with soft tissue abscesses on spinal tuberculosis, detected by imaging. The patients have been selected in the rheumatology department of the University Hospital Center of Cocody in Abidjan from January 2003 to December 2013. We were interested to epidemiological, topographical and therapeutic data. Fishers  exact  test  was  used  to  test  the  significance  of  association  between  different  variables. Level of significance was set at 0.05.

Results: The prevalence of abscesses was 72.8% that was 311 cases among these 427 records of spinal tuberculosis collected during the study period. The total number of patients was dominated by men (53.6%) and the average age was 43.1 years. Computed tomography scan was the main diagnostic imaging (97.7%). The topography of soft tissue abscesses was: subcutaneous area (1.2%), paraspinal muscles (95.1%), retro-pharyngeal area (10.6%) and epidural area (19.6%). Osteoarticular lesions associated with abscesses were: Spondylodiscitis (96.1%), spondylitis (2.8%) and zygapophyseal arthritis and osteitis (4.5%). The majority of patients had tuberculosis treatment lasting 12 months: 2 months of the combination Rifampicin-Isoniazid-Pyrazinamide-Ethambutol following by 10 months of Rifampicin-isoniazid. The outcome was favorable marked by the resorption of abscesses and the healing of patients.

Conclusion: The soft tissue abscesses are common in spinal tuberculosis in Abidjan. They mostly sit at the paraspinal muscles. Their treatment involves corticosteroid-associated with tuberculosis treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Levels of Oral Hygiene Awareness, Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among the Students of a Government School in Karachi

Raima Bashir, Kulsoom Rizvi

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/24794

Aims: The object of this study was to assess the levels of oral hygiene awareness, knowledge, and practice of the children of a Govt. school belonging to low socioeconomic class in Karachi, and to attract more of the health promotion programs and campaigns towards these less privileged areas so that awareness regarding oral hygiene and health may be emphasized upon them and encourage them about the benefits of a healthy oral cavity.

Study Design: A cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Railway’s Secondary School. Railway colony, near Kalapul, Karachi in February 2015 .

Methodology: This study was conducted to assess the oral health knowledge, attitude and practice amongst the students of a government school in Karachi. Sample: A total of 461 students (251 Males + 210 Females) participated in the study through a questionnaire that consisted of 24 closed-ended questions. The data was analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 15 and results were accumulated by frequency distribution.

Results: It was observed that 97% of children (n= 446) demonstrated regular oral hygiene practice, results regarding knowledge were also good but bad eating habits were also found prevailing amongst them that need to be addressed.

Conclusion: Overall it can be said that the results relating to oral hygiene practice and knowledge were good but only 31% of the students visited the dentist and the concept of regular dental checkup was almost nil. Hence the need for continuing dental education through promotion programs is emphasized with justification.

Open Access Original Research Article

Serum Albumin and Selected Antioxidants Status in Children with Protein Energy Malnutrition in Sokoto, Nigeria

A. S. Mainasara, M. H. Yeldu, A. C. Chikere, F. U. Bunza, B. Shehu, N. M. Jiya

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/25130

Aims: To assess the serum albumin and selected antioxidant status in 51 children with protein energy malnutrition (PEM) in Sokoto, Nigeria.

Study Design: A cross-sectional study was performed comparing two groups of children, one with confirmed case of PEM and the other apparently healthy children; both groups were gender, age and socioeconomically matched.

Place and Duration of Study: Departments of Paediatrics, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto and Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, between April, 2014 and September, 2015. 

Methodology: We included fifty (51) children (of both sexes, aged range 6-60 months) with confirmed cases of protein energy malnutrition were included in this study. The modified Wellcome classification was used to classify the protein energy malnourished children into underweight (14), marasmus (17), kwashiorkor (10) and marasmic-kwashiorkor (10). Fifty (50) gender- age-and socioeconomically-matched apparently healthy children were used as controls. The subject selection, anthropometric parameters and clinical examinations were performed by the consultant paediatricians in the clinic. Standard procedures were used for the analyses of biochemical parameters.

Results: Our results showed that, mean mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), weight, body mass index (BMI), were significantly (P<0.001) lower in the malnourished group compared with the control group. With the exception of MUAC which decreased significantly (p<0.001) with increasing severity of malnutrition, the mean weight, and BMI were not significantly (p>0.05) different among the different classes of PEM. Serum Albumin, α-tocopherol, copper and zinc were significantly (P<0.001) lower in the malnourished group compared with the control group. Serum Albumin, α-tocopherol, copper and zinc decreased significantly (P<0.001) with increasing severity of malnutrition.

Conclusion: Our results showed that serum albumin, α-tocopherol, copper and zinc were significantly lower in the malnourished group than the control group (p<0.001). The decrease in the serum albumin, α-tocopherol, copper and zinc progressed with the increasing severity of malnutrition among the children. These findings suggest an altered protein and antioxidant status in protein energy malnutrition. In addition to providing proteins and calories, adequate supplementations of zinc, copper and α-tocopherol should be provided. These should be part of nutritional rehabilitation of malnourished children in order to achieve optimal results of management and avoid clinical complications associated with zinc, copper and vitamin E deficiencies.