Aims: Diabetes as a health problem, leads to many pathological effects. Many studies showed that micronutrients found in these patients are not in accordance with the recommendations of RDA*. The aim of this study was to assess the adequacy of nutrient intake in diabetic patients attending diabetes clinics in Markazi Province of Iran, there by basic information on the nutritional status of this group of patients was obtained and early survey started.
Study Design: Cross - sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: Clinical Research Unit, Markazi Province, Arak, Iran, between April 2012 and July 2013.
Methodology: In a random sample procedure 250 diabetic patients referring to diabetic clinics in Markazi Province was assessed. A questionnaire was completed for each patient. This form included some demographic data and laboratory food frequency questionnaire (FFQ -168) and a 24-hour dietary recall. After completing the questionnaire the amount of energy and nutrients in each food and beverage ingredients were calculated by using food composition table USDA designed in a food processing software. The standard amounts of Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA 1989) were used to evaluate the adequacy of the diet. Data was analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient, chi-square and Independent Samples T-test, Paired Samples T-test the SPSS16 statistical software were used.
Results: In this study, about 32% of patients had normal weight and 68% of them were overweight or obese. The mean of fasting blood glucose was 212.5 mg /dl. Percentage of energy derived from carbohydrate, protein and fat, was 58.8 and 13.6 and 27.6% respectively. Percentage of energy from saturated fat was around 17%. Among male patients, energy intake, fiber, unsaturated saturated fat energy percentage, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, zinc, vitamin A, selenium, vitamin K, vitamin C and vitamin E intake values are significantly different from RDA values, the amounts of iron, percent of energy from saturated fatty acids, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher than RDA values and other nutrient intakes were lesser than the RDA. Among female patients, fiber intake, percentage of energy from unsaturated and saturated fat, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, vitamin B1, folic acid and vitamin E values are significantly different from RDA values, among of these amounts, energy from saturated fat, zinc, vitamin B1 and vitamin E were significantly higher than RDA values and other nutrient intakes were lesser than the RDA.
Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the nutritional adequacy of food intake in diabetic patients, is not desirable. The amount of energy from carbohydrate was higher than RDA recommendations. Percent of energy from saturated fatty acids was higher than standard. Percent of energy from saturated fatty acids was higher than standard. Despite the apparent over-weight and obesity of patients, there was nutrient deficiency in them. In overall, in this area choice of balance diet and training are necessary.