Open Access Original Research Article

Frequency of Three Common Mutations of CARD15/NOD2 Gene in Jordanian Patients with Crohn’s Disease

Khaled A. Jadallah, Ammar K. Daoud, Osama N. Abu Nasra, Susan M. Kullab, Waseem T. Hamoudi, Niazy A. Abu Farsakh, Nabil A. Bashir

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 93-105
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/15953

Background and Aims: CARD15/NOD2 is recognized as a major susceptibility gene for Crohn’s disease. Several mutations of CARD15/NOD2 have been reported in different racial groups. We aimed to investigate the frequency of three common CARD15/NOD2 mutations in a Jordanian Crohn’s disease cohort.
Methodology: Fifty one unrelated Crohn’s disease patients and fifty one age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited at two hospitals in Jordan. Demographic and phenotypic characteristics of patients were ascertained. Allele frequencies for three CARD15/NOD2 mutations (G2722C, C2104T, 3020insC) were determined by PCR-RFLP, ARM-PCR, and direct sequencing using allele specific primers.
Results: The frequencies of G2722C alleles in Crohn’s disease patients were higher but not statistically significant as compared to healthy controls (5.9% vs. 1.9%; P = 0.32). On the other hand, C2104T and 3020insC mutations have not been detected in Crohn’s disease patients or healthy controls.
Conclusion: Our findings indicate that common mutations of CARD15/NOD2 gene in White patients with Crohn’s disease are not associated with Crohn’s disease in the Jordanian population. Further studies are needed to ascertain the effect of these and other mutations on Crohn’s disease susceptibility and behavior in our population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Resistance among Acinetobacter species and Evaluation of Risk Factors

Raminder Sandhu, Kanwardeep Singh

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 106-115
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/14427

Background: Acinetobacter has gained importance as an emerging multi drug resistant nosocomial pathogen among non fermenting aerobic gram negative bacteria, especially in intensive care units. This organism is contributing to increased morbidity and mortality with strong propensity to colonize and disseminate among humans and environmental sources.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted from February 2013 to December 2013. Various clinical specimens received in microbiology laboratory from inpatients and outpatients were studied including their antimicrobial resistance pattern. A total of 111 Acinetobacter species isolates were included in the study. Associated risk factors were recorded from the clinical data which included demographic characteristics of the patient along with the indoor department, period of stay in ICU and hospital, presence of indwelling devices, antimicrobial therapy, surgical interventions, focal or generalized infections and underlying chronic morbid diseases.
Results: In current study maximum number of Acinetobacter was from urine specimen (57.66%) followed by blood (25.23%). Among inpatients highest percentage of isolates was recovered from general surgical ward (26.88%) followed by intensive care units (24.73%). The number of MDR & XDR isolates recovered was 21(18.92%) & 11(10%) respectively. Imipenem, Meropenem and Doxycycline remained efficacious drugs against Acinetobacter infections with resistance rates of 18.02%, 30.63% and 36.94% respectively. The study revealed focal/generalized infections, indwelling devices, duration of stay in ICU & hospital, mechanical ventilation as significant risk factors in decreasing order for acquisition of MDR and XDR Acinetobacter but according to the statistical analysis only Diabetes mellitus was found to be significant (p value 0.019) whereas all other factors remained insignificant ( p value > 0.05).
Conclusion: Prolonged usage of indwelling devices & medical equipments in critically ill patients along with longer duration of hospitalization can facilitate colonization and infection with Acinetobacter which is otherwise a low virulence pathogen. Strict compliance of disinfection policy and infection control programme with rational use of antibiotics especially carbapenems in Acinetobacter infections shall help in curtailing drug resistant strains from further dissemination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Porcelain Fused to Metal Crown Preparations by General Practitioners in Saudi Arabia

Mohammed M. Al-Moaleem, Nasser S. Al Hashim, Khalid A. Asiri, Essa A. Al Makhloti, Nasser M. Al Ahmari, Shreyas Tikare

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 116-123
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/15861

Background: Principles for fabricating prosthetic restorations include sufficient axial preparation and adequate occlusal clearance of the prepared teeth. This study measured the convergence angles in the prepared teeth for porcelain fused to metal (PFM) crowns done by general practitioners in different regions of Saudi Arabia. In addition, the presence of planar occlusal reductions, functional cusp bevels and rounded angles in prepared casts were evaluated.

Methods: Sixty dies were selected from the working casts of prepared PFM crowns by general dental practitioners. The dies were divided into four equal groups according to the region. All the measured dies were mounted with the occlusal plane of the prepared teeth parallel to the floor. Photographs of buccal and proximal aspects of the dies were taken and then transferred into a personal computer. An AutoCAD software program was used to measure the mesiodistal and buccolingual convergence angles. The planar occlusal reduction, functional cusp bevel and presence of rounded angles of each preparation were evaluated. The data were recorded, then analyzed using SPSS version 20.0.
Results: The mean convergence angles were high above the ideal range (4º-14º) in all of the selected regions. The mean mesiodistal convergence angle nearest to the ideal range was registered in teeth prepared in Dammam region, which was lower than tooth preparations from Jeddah, Abha and Jazan regions. Statistically significant differences with buccal, lingual taper and buccolingual convergence existed between the regions. Also significant differences were observed between the teeth preparation samples from four regions with distal taper and mesiodistal convergence angles.
Conclusion: The achieved convergence angles of tooth preparations for PFM crowns by different general practitioner were out of the recommended range mentioned in dental literature.

Open Access Original Research Article

Tactile Acuity among Commercial Motorcyclists in Uturu, Nigeria

C. D. Ubani, S. K. Oparah, A. A. Nwankwo, E. E. Osim

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 124-130
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/15805

Aims: To determine and compare tactile acuity of commercial motorcyclists with that of their age and sex matched controls.
Study Design: Cross sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was done in Uturu, a suburban university town in South Eastern Nigeria, from July 2014 to August 2014.
Methodology: We determined two point discrimination threshold distances on the right thumbs of two hundred (200) consenting commercial motorcyclists aged between 18 to 60 years and two hundred (200) of their age and sex matched controls.
Results: The mean values of two point discrimination threshold distances were 6.03 mm (Standard Deviation = 2.484) and 4.31 mm (Standard Deviation = 2.046) in the test and control subjects respectively (t =7.558; p < .001). There was positive linear association between two point discrimination threshold distance and the age of the subjects, and their duration of operation as commercial motorcyclists (r = .752; p < .001 and r = .770; p < .001), respectively. Duration of service as a commercial motorcycle operator (p < .001), age (p = .004) and impaired sense of fine touch (p < .001) were independent predictors of deficits in tactile acuity.
Conclusion: Tactile acuity was impaired in the assessed Nigerian commercial motorcycle operators compared with their controls. Measures of mitigating effects of the occupation on tactile acuity should be explored.

Open Access Review Article

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment and Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction in Men with Diabetes Mellitus

Patrick Chinedu Obi, Brenda Nwatu, Johnkennedy Nnodim, DanVictor Ebirim, Okechukwu Nwakor, Reginald Oputa

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 86-92
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/15497

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the persistent inability to attain /or maintain an erection of the penis adequate for satisfactory sexual intercourse. This condition has been found to be more common, to occur earlier and to be more difficult to treat in men with Diabetes mellitus (DM) than those without DM. However, recent developments have led to improvement in the treatment of this condition with attendant reduction in associated psychosocial problems. This review article discusses the various treatment strategies for ED in men with DM, brings to fore the need for prior assessment of cardiovascular status of such patients before commencement of treatment for ED as well as the need for adequate glycaemic control and treatment of other co-morbidities in these patients.