Open Access Original Research Article

Downregulation of Gap Junctions in Astrocytes by Monoclonal Antibodies against the Second Extracellular Loop of Connexin-43

Vladimir P. Baklaushev, Nadezhda Ph. Grinenko, Eugene B. Tsitrin, Michael S. Belyaev, Vladimir E. Mukhin, Gaukhar M. Yusubalieva, Olga I. Gurina, Svetlana N. Bykovskaya, Vladimir P. Cheknonin

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 35-44
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2011/290

Downregulation of gap junctions by monoclonal antibodies against the second extracellular loop of connexin-43 (E2Cx43) was studied in a passaged culture of astrocytes. The results of confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that, after two hours of coincubation of cells loaded with Calcein AM and Dil according to Goldberg et al. and unlabelled cells, the cytoplasmic dye Calcein AM was actively transferred to unlabelled cells through newly formed gap junctions. This transfer could be almost completely blocked by addition of 60 μg/ml of anti-E2Cx43 antibodies. Flow cytometric analysis showed that, in experiments carried out according to Goldberg et al., with approximately 2% of labeled cells added to unlabelled ones, about 2.5% of the total cell population took up Calcein AM through gap junctions, thus forming a cell pool characterized by low-intensity green fluorescence. In the presence of antibodies, the proportion of these cells was no more than 0.6%, which indicates an at least fourfold suppression of the gap junction function by E2Cx43 antibodies. The data obtained were reproduced in several independent series. Thus, we obtained monoclonal antibodies capable of modulating the gap junction function in cultures of Cx43-positive cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

Frequency and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Uro-Pathogens Isolated from Community and Hospital-Acquired Infections in Saudi Arabia – A Prospective Case Study

Mohammad Alzohairy, Habeeb Khadri

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 45-56
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2011/207

Objective: Urinary tract infection (UTI) remains a worldwide therapeutic problem, not only as a nosocomial disease but also as a community-acquired infection. Antibiotic resistance of urinary tract pathogens has increased worldwide. Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) recently recommended that each hospital should determine the locally establish mechanisms to resistance rates among uropathogens. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of the bacterial agents that cause urinary tract infection both in outpatients as well as in hospitalized patients and to assess the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern against various types of antimicrobial agents used for treating urinary tract infections.
Materials and Methods: We carried out a prospective study of urine culture and antibiotic sensitivity testing from symptomatic outpatients and inpatients.
Results: A total 150 cases were positive for significant bacteria, out of which 83 (55.4%) were from out patients and 67 (44.6%) were from hospitalized patients. The majority of the bacteria were isolated from female (78.7%) while the remaining was from male (21.3%). In the present study Escherichia coli was the predominant pathogen for UTI in both the groups. Klebsiella sps was the second common organism in hospital acquired infection followed by Pseudomonas. sps. Analysis of the frequency of bacterial isolates according to the age of the patients revealed that Escherichia coli and Klebsiella infections were more prevalent in the age groups (>20-49 years) and Pseudomonas infections were more prevalent in children and the elderly (<20 years and >50 years, respectively) and Salmonella typhi were isolated from elderly (>60 years age) patient from community–acquired infection. The mean susceptibility was high for Imipenem (98.8%), Amikacin (53.2%), Gentamicin (52.3%) and Ciprofloxacin (50.5%) but low for Ampicillin (34.2%), Norfloxacin (40.4%), Nitrofurantoin (44.5%), and Co-trimoxazole (46.7%). High prevalence of Multi-drug resistance (MDR) isolates were recovered (53%) which showed 3 or more antibiotics resistance.
Conclusion: Current knowledge of the antibiotic resistance patterns of uro-pathogens in specific geographical locations is an important factor for choosing an appropriate empirical antimicrobial treatment rather than on universal guidelines.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Test of Stability as an Aid for Osteotomy in Open Reduction for Developmental Dysplasia of Hip

Rohail Mumtaz, Mohammad Akhtar, Rana Dilawaiz Nadeem, Mohammad Ghias, Sheraz Anjum, Umar Anwer

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 57-66
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2011/212

Background: Developmental dysplasia of hip (DDH) represents a spectrum of anatomic abnormalities that can result in permanent disability. The goals of treatment are to create normal anatomy of the proximal femur and acetabulum and then to maintain that anatomy to allow normal development of hip. Our aim was to identify significance of the test of stability in planning of appropriate osteotomy during open reduction in order to achieve stable concentric reduction in DDH in terms of Severin’s clinical and radiological outcome.
Materials and Methods: In this study, 50 children with DDH, which required open reduction and osteotomy for stable concentric reduction, were admitted in Orthopaedic department of SIMS/Services Hospital from Mar 2004 - May 2008. Clinical assessment and radiograph of pelvis with both hips in anteroposterior view was done for all the patients to confirm the diagnosis. After the confirmation of diagnosis surgery was planned and during surgery test of stability applied. Test of stability are the maneuvers which included flexion, internal rotation and abduction performed by the operating surgeon to assess the need for a concomitant osteotomy. If hip found stable in internal rotation and abduction, varus derotational femoral ostetomy was done and fixed with 1/3rd tubular plate. If hip required flexion it was treated with innominate osteotomy and fixed with K-wires. Those hips which required flexion, abduction and internal rotation for concentric reduction were treated with both ostetomies and fixed with K-wire & plate. Postoperatively all the patients were applied hip spica. A descriptive and analytical statistical analysis was performed on SPSS, version 13.
Results: The mean age of patients was 4 years (Mean ± SD: 4 ± 1.31), youngest patient being 3 years of age and oldest 7 years. Sex distribution with female to male ratio was 1.8:1. On an average follow up of 3.2 years Severin’s clinical outcome for 42 (84%) patients was excellent, 7 (14%) was good and 1 (2 %) was poor. P-value was 0.001. Severin’s radiological outcome for 40 (80%) patients was excellent and for 10 (20%) patients was good. P value was 0.112.
Conclusion: The test of stability is simple and effective aid for osteotomy in open reduction for developmental dysplasia of hip with excellent clinical and radiological results measured according to severin’s classification.

Open Access Original Research Article

Glycaemic Evaluation of Folk Recipe (Medicinal Plants) in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rabbits

Rifat-uz-Zaman .

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 67-84
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2011/245

Aim/Background: The present study was planned to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of ‘Folk recipe’ a combination of traditional medicinal plants in normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetes rabbits. The level of antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH in relation to the total phenolic contents.
Methods: Antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract of Folk Recipe (AFR) in 100-300 mg/kg, b.w. doses was determined by estimating blood glucose and serum insulin levels before and 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 hour post-treatment(s) intervals in treated rabbits. Total phenolic contents and DPPH-antioxidant activity of AFR were measured in vitro.
Results: AFR showed a dose dependent antidiabetic activity; maximum effect was established with 300 mg/kg, b.w. dose. The extract exerted a high significant (P<0.001) hypoglycemic effect in normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits. Extract showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in insulin levels and protected completely against alloxan-induced histopathological changes in pancreatic beta-cells of diabetic rabbits. A high antioxidant activity of AFR (5-10 µg/mL) was observed in comparison with L-ascorbic acid (5-10 µg/mL). The doses used did not show any sign of acute toxicity or resulted in any behavioral change.
Conclusion: From this study it may be concluded that the Folk recipe causes a reduction in blood glucose and increasing serum insulin levels may combat due to antioxidant activity by protecting beta-cells. Evaluation agreed with the potential use of Folk recipe as a traditional anti-diabetic tool.