Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research https://journaljammr.com/index.php/JAMMR <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research (ISSN:&nbsp;2456-8899)</strong> aims to publish research papers, reviews and short communications in the areas of medicine and medical research.&nbsp; JAMMR will not only publish traditional full research reports, including short communications, but also this journal will publish reports/articles on all stages of the research process like study protocols, pilot studies and pre-protocols. JAMMR is novelty attracting, open minded, peer-reviewed medical periodical, designed to serve as a perfectly new platform for both mainstream and new ground shaking works as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated.&nbsp;The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research 2456-8899 Peliosis Hepatis and Iron Deficiency – An Interesting Case Report https://journaljammr.com/index.php/JAMMR/article/view/30640 <p>Peliosis hepatis (PH) is a rare condition showing presence of multiple blood‑filled cystic cavities in the liver. It does not have any gender predilection, and is suspected to be idiopathic. However, in patients with predisposing diseases, its prevalence can range from 0.2 to 22%. The association between PH and anemia has not been completely established. PH has been reported in a patients with hematologic disease, and also in patient with spherocytic haemolytic anemia. It is also suggested that acute sequestration of blood can happen in these sinusoidal cavities, which can lead to development of anemia and thrombocytopenia. We present a case of 40-year female who presented with abdominal pain and recurrent iron deficiency anemia. On examination, she was severely pale, and had moderate hepatosplenomegaly. Ultrasonography showed hepatomegaly and splenomegaly, and her blood investigations revealed severe iron deficiency with bone marrow showing hypercellular marrow with depleted iron stores. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was normal. Liver biopsy showed changes suggestive of peliosis hepatis. She was treated with iron and multiple blood transfusions and is in good health 6 months post presentation. Also, the association between anemia and PH has not been established.</p> Anvita Anne Bharath Suryadevara Spoorthi Ramineni Varun Kumar Bandi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-26 2020-09-26 41 44 10.9734/jammr/2020/v32i1730640 Blunt Hohman-Lever Technique for Reduction of Intertrochanteric Fracture – A Surgical Technique https://journaljammr.com/index.php/JAMMR/article/view/30635 <p>We present a 60 years old patient who presented to us with history of domestic fall and sustained injury to the right hip and was diagnosed with trochanteric fracture right side. As closed reduction was not acceptable and bone spike was not available in the set, we designed our own technique of using a bone lever introduced from the same incision from where reaming/nail insertion was done. To the best of our knowledge this technique <em>has never been described before in english literature.</em> Since our first case we have tried it in 6 other patients and without any issues.</p> Raviraj A. K. Abhishek Sugumar Vidyasagar Maalepati Vivek Kumar N. Savsani Ashish Anand ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-22 2020-09-22 1 7 10.9734/jammr/2020/v32i1730635 Comparing the Effect of Methods of Rat Euthanasia on the Brain of Wistar Rats: Cervical Dislocation, Chloroform Inhalation, Diethyl Ether Inhalation and Formalin Inhalation https://journaljammr.com/index.php/JAMMR/article/view/30636 <p>Contentions still exist as to the most humane method of sacrificing experimental animals. Beyond humaneness, there is also the issue of appropriateness of a method of sacrifice with regards to organ safety. This study compared four common methods of rodent sacrifice used in Nigeria and their effects on the brain. Twenty male Wistar rats weighing 150 to 180g were randomly separated into four groups of five rats each. After a two week period of acclimatization, the animals were sacrificed; Group A by Cervical dislocation (CD) which also served as control, Group B by chloroform inhalation (CI), Group C by diethyl ether inhalation (DEI) and group D by Formalin inhalation (FI).&nbsp; The time taken for the animals to pass out was documented and the brains were harvested. Four of the brains from rats in each group were homogenized in phosphate buffer solution and centrifuged at 10000rpm. The supernatant were used for antioxidant studies. The remaining one brain from each group were fixed in 10% formal saline and after 48 hours, the cerebellum (CB) and hippocampus (Hp) were used for histological studies using the H &amp; E method. Our results show although CD was the quickest, it gave the least quantity of blood. Meanwhile CI was the most humane, gave the most blood and saved time compared to DEI and FI. None of the methods of sacrifice showed adverse effect on the antioxidant parameters of the rats. However, histological studies showed that while CD and CI showed no adverse effects on the hippocampus, only CD was completely safe for the CB. The other methods showed various levels of cell death. It is therefore expedient to consider these factors in making the choice of an appropriate method of sacrifice and to use the most humane and safest method with reference to the organ studied.</p> U. S. Aguwa C. E. Eze B. N. Obinwa S. N. Okeke S. F. Onwuelingo D. I. Okonkwo D. K. Ogbuokiri A. E. Agulanna I. J. Obiesie A. J. Umezulike ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-22 2020-09-22 8 16 10.9734/jammr/2020/v32i1730636 Comparative Evaluation of Influence of Three Different Obturation Techniques on Removal of Filling Material during Retreatment: An in vitro Study https://journaljammr.com/index.php/JAMMR/article/view/30638 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To evaluate the influence of various obturating techniques on retreatment teeth.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Institute of Dental Sciences, Jammu and Kashmir, India between December 2019 and February 2020.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Sixty extracted mandibular premolars were randomly divided into three groups (n=20) based on the obturation technique adopted which endodontic treatment i.e., cold lateral compaction, thermoplasticized and GuttaFlow techniques. The samples were evaluated using micro-computed tomography for the volume before and after the retreatment to assess the remaining amount of filling material in the canals, and also the time taken for the removal of filling material during the retreatment. Data were analyzed using ANOVA followed by Post hoc test at P &lt; 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The percentage of remaining filling material was between 17%-27%. The highest percentage of remaining filling material was seen in samples obturated with GuttaFlow (P &lt; 0.05). The time required for retreatment was highly significant in thermoplasticized technique (P &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The type of obturating technique influenced the amount of filling material remained in the canal after retreatment and also the time taken during this removal.</p> Deebah Choudhary ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 35 40 10.9734/jammr/2020/v32i1730638 Coinfection of Hepatitis B and C with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Hemophilia: A Cross Sectional Study https://journaljammr.com/index.php/JAMMR/article/view/30641 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To identify coinfection by Hepatitis B (HBV), Hepatitis C (HCV) and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Hemophiliacs.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> We included 107 hemophiliacs. For the current analysis, age, type, severity of Hemophilia and serum profile for Hepatitis B, C and HIV were included. The serological tests performed for Hepatitis and HIV were carried out using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method (ELISA) and the confirmatory tests for HIV and HCV were done by the Western Blot and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The results of positive and negative serology were compared using the Mann-Whitney test using the Fundação Hemominas reproducibility map of serological reactions, through the CUT-off of each test.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> A cross-sectional study was carried out on hemophilics to asses the prevalence of infections diseases transmitted by transfusion.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Department of Hematology, public service on Coagulopathies at Fundação Hemominas Juiz de Fora Brazil, between January 2008 to December 2018.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The average age was 32.77 years with standard deviation (SD)= 16.8 years. In regard to classification, 57.65% of patients with Hemophilia A were severe, and 57% of patients with Hemophilia B were moderate. Laboratory results demonstrated that 24.3% of the patients were HBV positive, and 40.2% were HCV positive, with 21.42% positive by PCR. The prevalence of HIV positive was 11.2%. In general analysis, 44.82% had at least one type of viral infection and 23.4% presented coinfections. HIV positive patients were all positive for HCV (11.2%) and 7.5% of patients were infected by HIV, HCV and HBV. The coexistence of hepatitis C and HIV was statistically relevant with (<em>P = .001</em>), considering the year of birth, most patients with HCV and HIV were born before 1980s (<em>P </em>= .001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Infections by HBV, HCV and HIV are late complications in patients that received blood products before 1990s. Infection by a viral agent and the year of birth has a direct association, due to the standardization and implantation of tests for HIV and HCV in the 80s and 90s.</p> T. S. Espósito T. M. M. Paz L. O. W. Rodrigues A. C. A. Santos R. D. M. Almeida O. F. Santos R. L. Medeiros J. A. S. Lopes D. O. W. Rodrigues ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-26 2020-09-26 45 52 10.9734/jammr/2020/v32i1730641 Serum Periostin Level in Asthmatic Children with Exercise Induced Bronchospasm https://journaljammr.com/index.php/JAMMR/article/view/30642 <p><strong>Background:</strong> There are few biomarkers that can be easily accessed in clinical settings and may reflect refractory Th2-eosinophlic inflammation and remodeling of the asthmatic airways. Serum periostin may be one such biomarker to aid our understanding of the patho-bio-physiology of asthma and exercise induced asthma. The aim of the study is to explore the relationship between serum periostin level and exercise induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic children.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>This cross-sectional study was carried out on (90) children both sexes aged from 6 to 15 years including, (60) children with bronchial asthma and (30) children were enrolled as control group in the period from January 2018 to January 2019. Patients were randomly classified into two groups: I) Patient group: divided into 2 groups according to standardized treadmill exercise challenge test: Group A: (30) asthmatic children with positive test. Group B: (30) asthmatic children with negative test. II-Control group: (30) children apparently healthy with no personal or family history of asthma. All children were subjected to the following Investigations: Chest x-ray, pulmonary functions tests (FEV<sub>1</sub> &amp; PEFR) except controls, Laboratory investigations as CBC and Serum periostin level.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean values of both the percentage of PEFR and FEV<sub>1 </sub>after exercise in group A were significantly lower than those in group B and the percentage of PEFR and FEV<sub>1</sub> after exercise in each group were significantly lower than the percentage before exercise in the same group. The mean value of eosinophilic count in group A was significantly higher than (group B and control group) and the mean value of eosinophilic count in group B was significantly higher than control group. The mean value of serum level of periostin in group A was significantly higher than (group B and control group), however, there was no significant difference between group B and control group as regard to serum level of periostin.</p> <p>Chest tightness, cough and wheezes after exercise and eosinophilic count in patients with high serum periostin level were significantly higher than patients with low serum periostin level, and both PEFR and FEV<sub>1</sub> after exercise in patients with high serum periostin level were significantly lower than patients with low serum periostin level. Also the normal serum periostin levels vary among different age groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Serum periostin level can be considered as a useful biomarker for diagnosis of Exercise induced bronchospasm (EIB) in asthmatic children especially when lung function test cannot be done However, cautious is required in evaluating serum periostin levels in children because it varies with age.</p> Reem M. Soliman Mohamed B. Hamza Rasha M. El-Shafiey Hesham A. Elserogy Nabil M El-Esawy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-26 2020-09-26 53 67 10.9734/jammr/2020/v32i1730642 COVID-19 Diagnosis, Treatments and Prevention: A Review https://journaljammr.com/index.php/JAMMR/article/view/30637 <p>Novel Coronavirus are very harmful virus. This viruses have positive single stranded RNA genome and enveloped which is called nucleocapsid. The family of this virus is Coronaviridae. This virus originated from species of avian and mammalian. This virus effect on upper respiratory tract in humans. Many species of these novel coronaviruses (HCoVs) are named as HCoV-HKU1, HCoV-NL63. Predominant species of this virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) across the world.&nbsp; In both adults and childrens HCoV-HKU1 sp. is causes for chronic pulmonary disease and HCoV-NL63 species causes for upper and lower respiratory tract disease. Most recent species of this virus is MERS-CoV. This species caused for acute pneumonia and occasional renal failure. The new strain of novel Coronavirus is SARS-CoV-2. This strain causes for the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). This disease named by the World Health Organization. Now world fighting against COVID-19 and according to the recent statistics report of world about the COVID-19 cases approx 22.6M confirmed cases and 792K death cases appeared and recovered 14.5M. COVID-19 disease starts to spread from December 2019 from china. Covid-19 disease is emerged in Wuhan seafood market at Wuhan of South China and then rapidly spread throughout the world. The corona virus outbreak has been declared a public health emergency of International concern by World Health Organization (WHO). In this article we summarize the current clinical characteristics of coronavirus and diagnosis, treatments and prevention of COVID-19 disease. In this review article, we analyze data from various Research Reports like WHO guidelines and other articles. It is very important to the readers that new data of COVID-19 updating nearly every hour of day regarding clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment strategies, and outcomes COVID-19 disease. The degree of COVID-19 disease varying throughout the world. COVID-19 affected patient shows various symptoms like fever, cough, sore throat, breathlessness, fatigue, and malaise among others. The COVID-19 disease is being treated through general treatment like symptomatic treatment, by using antiviral drugs, oxygen therapy and by the immune system. There is no vaccine or therapeutic strategies for deal with this disease yet. In this critical situation preventive measures must be require.&nbsp; A very important issue in preventing viral infection is hand hygiene. There are other entities that people can boosting the immune system and help in infection prevention.</p> Soumik Chatterjee Sabyasachi Chatterjee ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-23 2020-09-23 17 34 10.9734/jammr/2020/v32i1730637