Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research 2020-11-30T12:29:55+00:00 Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research (ISSN:&nbsp;2456-8899)</strong> aims to publish research papers, reviews and short communications in the areas of medicine and medical research.&nbsp; JAMMR will not only publish traditional full research reports, including short communications, but also this journal will publish reports/articles on all stages of the research process like study protocols, pilot studies and pre-protocols. JAMMR is novelty attracting, open minded, peer-reviewed medical periodical, designed to serve as a perfectly new platform for both mainstream and new ground shaking works as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated.&nbsp;The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> COVID-19 and Hyperinflammation: Role of Steroid in Mild Disease 2020-11-30T11:38:27+00:00 Jhasaketan Meher Manish Kumar Nayak <p>Current COVID-19 has become a major public health problem because of its pandemicity, with wide spectrum of disease manifestation. SARS-COV-2 can have a varied clinical manifestation ranging from asymptomatic, mild symptomatic to severe disease like acute respiratory distress syndrome, cytokine storm, and multiorgan dysfunction. It has been described in literature that cytokine storm/hyperinflammation arises as result of dysregulated immune response leading to excessive release of various cytokines which causes multiorgan dysfunction. But there is paucity of literature describing the immune response and hyperinflammation in mild disease which may cause unremitting symptoms. Here we describe a case series of three patients with mild disease, who had persistent symptoms beyond 1 week and managed with low dose steroid after confirming it to be hyperinflammation. So it is imperative to detect the hyperinflammatory phase to halt the disease progression. Also we have discussed the role of immune system and role of steroid in COVID-19.</p> 2020-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Comparison of Post-operative Sensitivity in Composite Resin Restorations Using Total-etch and Self-etch Adhesive in Posterior Teeth 2020-11-28T08:26:08+00:00 Muhammad Ali Samreen Hussain Faryal Abdullah Jiand Baloch Zaheer Ahmed Soomro Abubakar Sheikh Shoaib Khan <p><strong>Aims: </strong>Over the period of time lot of advancement has been done in the field of dentistry. In spite of these newer materials and improvement in the properties of composite material post-operative sensitivity is still a major concern for a dentist after composite restoration placement. Dentine bonding agents; dentine adhesives are either a “total-etch technique” or “self-etch technique” which bond to the tooth structure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of self -etch and total-etch with strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Self-etching adhesives are used to prevent postoperative sensitivity when used before placing posterior resin-based composite restorations. The purpose of this study was to see whether self-etch adhesive would result in less postoperative sensitivity than a total-etch adhesive; Total Etch adhesive would result in a better enamel marginal integrity than Self Etch Adhesive.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Clinical Trial.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Department of Operative Dentistry, Fatima Jinnah Dental College between October 2019 – February 2020.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Sample size was calculated using a WHO sample size determination for health studies software using power 80% and the level of significance 5%. Sample size was calculated in accordance with the literature review. The sample size required was 32 in each group. Sample technique was Non-probability purposive sampling. Total 62 teeth were restored (molars and premolars) 32 in each group, age range 18 to 40 years. Cross tab made for the pain score between self-etch and total etch or pain comparison. Man Whitney test was applied. Both adhesives were handled and applied according to manufacturer’s instructions. The patients were carefully examined at recall appointments at 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 3 months.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Total 62 teeth were restored (molars and premolars) 32 in each group. On the basis of frequency and percentage clinically significant difference was found but no significance was found. Patients were evaluated before treatment, 2 weeks after treatment and 3 months after treatment. When compared the sensitivity severity with self-etch technique 19.4% had moderate sensitivity before treatment which was reduced to 0% after 2 weeks and 3 months. While in total etch technique there was 16.1% sensitivity preoperatively which was reduced to 3.2% and 6.5% after 2 weeks and 3 months respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> There is lesser degree of sensitivity when total etch technique was used under composite in comparison to self-etch.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Lifestyle Correlates of Erectile Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects Attending the Diabetes Out Patient Clinic of a Nigerian Teaching Hospital 2020-11-30T06:03:04+00:00 Chidiebele M. Ezeude Afoma M. Ezeude Marcellinus O. Nkpozi Ogonna C. Oguejiofor Henry M. Nwankwo Chidiebere V. Ugwueze <p><strong>Background: </strong>Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a chronic complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) that is associated with a negative impact on emotional wellbeing and poor quality of life. There is dearth of current data on the lifestyle correlates of ED in subjects with type 2 diabetes both locally and globally.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To determine the association between ED, tobacco use (snuff use and cigarette smoking) and alcohol consumption in type 2 DM patients attending the diabetes outpatient clinic of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi in South-Eastern Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>This was a cross sectional hospital-based study comprising 124 male type 2 diabetic subjects. Data collection was done with a researcher designed study proforma. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and the abbreviated version of Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT-C) questionnaires were used for the diagnosis of anxiety/depression, erectile dysfunction and obtaining the alcohol history respectively. History of tobacco use was obtained and cigarette smoking estimated in pack years. Subjects who had anxiety, depression or hypogonadism were excluded from the study. Statistical analysis was done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. <em>P </em>value of ˂ 0.05 is considered significant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 124 patients were studied. The prevalence rate of ED among the subjects was 48.4%. No significant associations were found between erectile dysfunction and tobacco use (Cigarette smoking and Snuff use) (<em>P</em> = 0.814, OR = 0.904, 95% C.I = 0.389 – 2.101) (<em>P</em> = 0.762, OR = 0.867, 95% C.I = 0.344 – 2.15) and alcohol consumption (<em>P</em> = 0.389, OR = 0.670, 95% C.I = 0.269 – 1.667) respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>There was no significant association between ED and tobacco use and alcohol consumption in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Similarly, no significant association was found between ED, pack years of cigarette smoking and the grades of alcohol consumption in the subjects. The subjects’ diet, medications and the social/religious stigma attached to the use of these substances in our setting could have influenced our findings.</p> 2020-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Using Electromyography to Assess Postural Load in Dentistry: A Literature Review 2020-11-30T12:29:55+00:00 Júlia Margato Pazos Patricia Petromilli Nordi Sasso Garcia <p>This study sought to perform a review of the literature on the use of electromyography to assess postural load in dental work. The literature used in this review was obtained from databases and only articles published published between 1991 and 2019 were considered. The main keywords were “electromyography,” "working posture”, “ergonomics” and “muscle activity”. Each abstract was read to determine whether the information in the article included discussions on the use of electromyography to assess postural load in dental work (n=27). It was found that electromyography is beneficial to assess the influence of different devices used in dental work, however, as it has limitations, researchers must be aware of them to seek alternatives to circumvent them.</p> 2020-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##