Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Autoimmune Mechanisms and Treatment

Mustafa Moazam

Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, India.

Shazain Khan

Benedictine University, Illinois, USA.

Issac Quiroga

University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, USA.

Karen Parra

University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, USA.

Paulina Flores

University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, USA.

Eman Fatima

Akhtar Saeed Medical and Dental College, Lahore, Pakistan.

Andrea Amato

University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, USA.

Syeda I. Tahera

Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan.

Muhammad Sohail S. Mirza *

Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan, China.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


This article provides a comprehensive overview of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM), highlighting the autoimmune origins of the illness and its therapeutic options. It discusses the role of insulin in metabolism and highlights the fact that the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells is the primary characteristic of type 1 diabetes. Environmental triggers such as viral infections, cow's milk proteins, and insufficient vitamin D are studied in addition to genetic factors such as specific alleles associated with the disease's susceptibility. The report discusses the global epidemiology of T1DM and its increasing incidence, emphasizing the need for a comprehensive approach to treatment. Various treatment options are evaluated, emphasizing the need for customized approaches to treat this complex autoimmune disease. These options include gene therapy, insulin treatment, immunomodulatory medications, and vaccination. All things considered, the study adds to our understanding of T1DM and highlights the ongoing need to develop effective treatment modalities.

Keywords: Type 1 diabetes mellitus, autoimmune mechanisms, treatment, environmental

How to Cite

Moazam, Mustafa, Shazain Khan, Issac Quiroga, Karen Parra, Paulina Flores, Eman Fatima, Andrea Amato, Syeda I. Tahera, and Muhammad Sohail S. Mirza. 2024. “Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Autoimmune Mechanisms and Treatment”. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research 36 (7):142-51. https://doi.org/10.9734/jammr/2024/v36i75492.


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