Insulin Resistance in Obese Children and Adolescents in Relation to Breastfeeding Duration
Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research,
Background: Childhood obesity is unarguably a major public health challenge, which is associated with the incidence of many health problems like insulin resistance which is the main trigger of metabolic syndrome, that is characterized by many comorbidities like dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, steatosis and many cardiovascular problems. Breast milk is an essential way for supplying the needed nutrients for infants’ growth and development. The aim of this work was to assess insulin resistance in obese children and adolescents and to detect its relation to duration of breastfeeding.
Methods: This case controlled study was started at June 2018 till July 2020 and carried out on 120 children who were divided into 2 equal groups: Group (1) obese children. Group (2) healthy controls -of matched age and sex- that weren’t obese.
Results: Weight, body mass index, waist circumference and blood pressure were significantly higher among obese children than healthy controls. There was no statistically significant difference between both groups regarding duration of breastfeeding. HOMA-IR was higher among obese children who received shorter duration of breastfeeding but without statistically significant difference. There was a significant positive correlation between HOMA-IR of obese children and both of fasting blood glucose and fasting serum insulin levels. While a significant negative correlation was observed between HOMA-IR and high density lipoproteins of obese children.
Conclusion: Obese children and adolescents had higher HOMA-IR indices than healthy controls which indicate their predisposition for having insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. HOMA-IR can be used as a useful tool for evaluation of metabolic syndrome risk in obese children as evidenced by the strong correlation between it and other components of metabolic syndrome. No significant relation was found between insulin resistance and breastfeeding duration in obese children and adolescents.
- Insulin resistance
- obese children
- breastfeeding duration
How to Cite
Triantafyllidis A, Polychronidou E, Alexiadis A, Rocha CL, Oliveira DN, Da Silva AS, et al. Computerized decision support and machine learning applications for the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity: A systematic review of the literature. Artif Intell Med. 2020;104:101844.
Di J, Cheng Y, Chang D, Liu Y. A meta-analysis of the impact of obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and microbiome on the diagnosis of Barrett’s esophagus. Dig Dis. 2019;38:165-77.
4.Nogueira-de-Almeida C, De Mello E. Different criteria for the definition of insulin resistance and its relation with dyslipidemia in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr. 2018;21(1):59-67.
Park J, Kim HS, Chu SH, Jekal YS, Lee JY. The effect of predominant breast-feeding on the risk of obesity in Korean preschool children. Nurs Heal Sci. 2015;17(1):77–83.
Kramer MS, Kakuma R. Optimal duration of exclusive breast feeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;(8).
Kaul P, Bowker SL, Savu A, Yeung RO, Donovan LE, Ryan EA. Association between maternal diabetes, being large for gestational age and breast-feeding on being overweight or obese in childhood. Diabetologia. 2019;62(2):249–58.
Vazquez CE, Cubbin C. Associations between breastfeeding duration and overweight/obese among children aged 5–10: A focus on racial/ethnic disparities in California. AIMS Public Heal. 2019;6(4):355.
Mameli C, Mazzantini S, Zuccotti GV. Nutrition in the first 1000 days: The origin of childhood obesity. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016;13(9):838.
Vehapoglu A, Yazici M, Demir AD, Turkmen S, Nursoy M, Ozkaya E. Early infant feeding practice and childhood obesity: The relation of breast-feeding and timing of solid food introduction with childhood obesity. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2014;27:1181–7.
Kyler KE, Wagner J, Hosey-Cojocari C, Watt K, Shakhnovich V. Drug dose selection in pediatric obesity: Available information for the most commonly prescribed drugs to children. Pediatr Drugs [Internet]. 2019;21(5):357–69. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40272-019-00352-8
Faienza MF, D’Amato G, Chiarito M, Colaianni G, Colucci S, Grano M, et al. Mechanisms involved in childhood obesity-related bone fragility. Front Endocrinol. 2019;10:269.
Giudici KV, Fisberg RM, Marchioni DML, Peters BSE, Martini LA. Crosstalk between bone and fat tissue: Associations between vitamin D, osteocalcin, adipokines, and markers of glucose metabolism among adolescents. J Am Coll Nutr. 2017;36:273–80.
Liu D-M, Guo X-Z, Tong H-J, Tao B, Sun L-H, Zhao H-Y, et al. Association between osteocalcin and glucose metabolism: A meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int. 2015;26:2823–33.
Huerta-Delgado A, Roffe D, Gonzalez A, Villarreal J, Tamez O, Rodriguez N, et al. Serum irisin levels, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation in pediatric patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. J Diabetes Res. 2020;2020.
Selvaraju V, Ayine P, Fadamiro M, Babu JR, Brown M, Geetha T. Urinary biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress are elevated in obese children and correlate with a marker of endothelial dysfunction. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2019;2019.
Jmal L, Jmal A, Abdennebi M, Feki M, Boukthir S. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Tunisian overweight and obese children. Tunis Med. 2019;97(1):133–9.
Yin C, Zhang H, Zhang M, Xiao Y. Adropin and apelin-12 efficiently predict metabolic syndrome in obese children. Pediatr Diabetes [Internet]. 2020;21(7):1132–9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/pedi.13101
Saeed W, Molham A-H, Saif-Ali R, Al-Eryani E. Metabolic syndrome and prediabetes among yemeni school-aged children. Diabetes, Metab Syndr Obes Targets Ther. 2020;13:2563.
Song P, Yu J, Chang X, Wang M, An L. Prevalence and correlates of metabolic syndrome in Chinese children: The china health and nutrition survey. Nutrients. 2017;9(1):79.
Ba HJ, Xu LL, Qin YZ, Chen HS. Serum chemerin levels correlate with determinants of metabolic syndrome in obese children and adolescents. Clin Med Insights Pediatr. 2019;13:117955651985378.
Zhang M, Tan X, Yin C, Wang L, Tie Y, Xiao Y. Serum levels of omentin-1 are increased after weight loss and are particularly associated with increases in obese children with metabolic syndrome. Acta Paediatr Int J Paediatr. 2017;106(11):1851–6.
Zhang Y, Hu J, Li Z, Li T, Chen M, Wu L, et al. A novel indicator of lipid accumulation product associated with metabolic syndrome in Chinese children and adolescents. Diabetes, Metab Syndr Obes Targets Ther. 2019;12:2075–83.
Mărginean CO, Meliţ LE, Ghiga DV, Mărginean MO. Early inflammatory status related to pediatric obesity. Front Pediatr [Internet]. 2019;7:241. Available: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31275906
Kostovski M, Simeonovski V, Mironska K, Tasic V, Gucev Z. Metabolic profiles in obese children and Adolescents with Insulin Resistance. Open access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2018;6(3):511–8. Available: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29610610
Modrek S, Basu S, Harding M, White JS, Bartick MC, Rodriguez E, et al. Does breast feeding duration decrease child obesity?. An instrumental variables analysis. Pediatr Obes [Internet]. 2017;12(4):304–11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/ijpo.12143
Yakubov R, Nadir E, Stein R, Klein-Kremer A. The duration of breast feeding and its association with metabolic syndrome among obese children. Sci World J. 2015;2015:4–7.
Kong KL, Burgess B, Morris KS, Faith MS, Paluch RA. High intake of added sugars is linked to rapid weight gain in infancy, breastfeeding ≥12 months may protect against this: A preliminary investigation. Pediatr Obes [Internet]. 2020;16(3):e12728. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/ijpo.12728
Wang J, Perona JS, Schmidt-RioValle J, Chen Y, Jing J, González-Jiménez E. Metabolic syndrome and its associated early-life factors among chinese and spanish adolescents: A pilot study. Nutrients. 2019;11(7):1568.
Veena S, Krishnaveni G, Wills A, Hill J, Karat S, Fall C. Glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in Indian children: Relationship to infant feeding pattern. Diabetologia [Internet]. 2011;54:25– 7. Available:https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21773682
Abstract View: 732 times
PDF Download: 223 times