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Background: Early detection of neuropsychological changes in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) is essential to improve their quality of life.
Aim of the Work: To assess neurological and psychological disorders in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) using multimodal approach through clinical, laboratory, neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies in a trial to detect etiological risk factors.
Study Design: Cross-sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Department of Pediatric (Hematology Unit) and Department of Neurology, Tanta University Hospital Egypt, between April 2016 and April 2018.
Methodology: This study was conducted on 50 children (27 male and 23 female; age range 2-18 years) with SCD and 25 healthy children matched age and sex. All subjects were subjected to full history taking, neurologic examination using pediatric neurological sheet, laboratory investigations, neuroimaging including: CT and /or MRI, MRA and/or CT angiography, also MR, EEG and Stanford-Binet Intelligence scales-Fifth Edition.
Results: Most of patients presented with headache 66%, cognitive decline 48%, seizures 28%, and visual affection 24%. Less common presentations were, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke 6% and 4% respectively. SCD children showed many abnormalities on neurological examination and on different modalities of MR imaging on the brain with positive correlation (X2=7.641, p-value <0.001*, r=0.248) with many risk factors. Prophylactic blood transfusion in SCD patients with abnormal TCD had a role in reducing the incidence of stroke.
Conclusion: Children with SCD were presented with variable neuropsychological disturbance that correlated with the brain imaging.
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