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Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors in apparently healthy Saudi women with vitamin D deficiency.
Study Design: A retrospective chart review.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in the Center of Excellence for Osteoporosis Research (CEOR), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between June 2015 to October 2015.
Methodology: Healthy women 20–40 years old, with no history of previous illnesses and not on any medications were included in this study. Data on anthropometric measurements as well as blood pressure (BP) were obtained. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Laboratory results including fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting lipid profile, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were also obtained. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OH)D3 concentration <50 nmol/l. Modified NCEP:ATPIII criteria were used to define cardio-metabolic risk factor cutoff points.
Results: A total of 305 women were included in the current analysis. Mean (± S.D.) age of the study group was 28.4±6.1 years and median (IQR) 25(OH)D3 was 17.8 (11.9–28.2) nmol/l. Almost 97% of the study participants were vitamin D deficient and 70% had values below 25 nmol/l. 25(OH)D3 was significantly inversely associated with waist circumference, systolic and diastolic BP and PTH (P=0.011, <0.0001, <0.0001, <0.0001, respectively). Prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors were higher among participants who fell in the lowest tertile of 25(OH)D3 except total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, however only higher PTH was statistically significant (P=0.022).
Conclusion: The results of the present study confirm the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among otherwise healthy Saudi women. The results also suggest that the prevalence of selected cardio-metabolic risk factors is higher among those with low vitamin D status. Prospective studies are needed to determine whether such deficiency will be of clinical significance with advancing age in this population, and whether vitamin D supplementation has beneficial effects.
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