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Patient mortality after kidney transplantation continues to be a major clinical challenge, with approximately 1 in 5 recipients dying within 10 years of engraftment. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death after the 1-year posttransplant and it has been estimated that the risk of cardiovascular events is 50-fold higher than in the general population. Because of this, post transplant outcomes are substantially influenced by cardiovascular disease. The presence of both traditional and non-traditional risk factors contributes to this overwhelming burden of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
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