Refractive Errors and Spectacle Use Behavior among Medical Students in a Nigerian Medical School
Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research,
Aim: To determine the prevalence of refractive errors and spectacle use behavior among medical students in University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.
Study Design: Cross sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Ophthalmology, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria, between April 2010 and July 2010.
Methodology: The study population consisted of fifth year medical students. Subjects had cycloplegic auto refraction with Topcon auto refractor during their rotation in ophthalmology at the Ophthalmology department of the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital. A spherical equivalents (SE) ≥ +0.50D were determined as hyperopia; SE of >-0.50D myopia and >-0.50D cylinder as astigmatism. Statistical analysis, which included chi-square test was carried out with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0.
Results: Sixty-six (79.5%) of subjects had a form of refractive error; 63.6%%, 16.7% and 19.7% were myope, hyperope or simple estigmat, respectively. The prevalence of ametropia was 82% in female and 78% in males. The association between refractive errors and gender was not statistically significant (p = 0.35, 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.34-0.36).Minus spherical errors ranged from -0.16 to -5.25 diopters (D) and plus spherical errors ranged from +0.25 to +1.00D, spherical equivalent between -0.25D and -2.75D being the most common type (85.5%). Eight students (12.1%) were wearing glasses at the time of the study corresponding with 10 (15.2%) who had eye pains while reading.
Conclusion: The prevalence of refractive errors among fifth year medical students of the University of Calabar was high and eyeglasses were worn by students who were symptomatic.
- Medical students
- Refractive error
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