Prevalence and Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome among Individuals Living with HIV and Receiving Antiretroviral Treatment in Tanzania

Gibson B. Kagaruki *

National Institute for Medical Research-Tukuyu Center, P.O.Box 538, Tukuyu, Mbeya, Tanzania.

Godfather D. Kimaro

National Institute for Medical Research-Muhimbili Center, P.O.Box 3436, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Clement N. Mweya

National Institute for Medical Research-Tukuyu Center, P.O.Box 538, Tukuyu, Mbeya, Tanzania.

Andrew M. Kilale

National Institute for Medical Research-Muhimbili Center, P.O.Box 3436, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and University of Bergen, Centre for International Health, Bergen, Norway.

Ray M. Mrisho

National Institute for Medical Research-Tukuyu Center, P.O.Box 538, Tukuyu, Mbeya, Tanzania.

Amani F. Shao

National Institute for Medical Research-Tukuyu Center, P.O.Box 538, Tukuyu, Mbeya, Tanzania and Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, University of Basel, Switzerland

Akili K. Kalinga

National Institute for Medical Research-Tukuyu Center, P.O.Box 538, Tukuyu, Mbeya, Tanzania.

Amos M. Kahwa

National Institute for Medical Research-Muhimbili Center, P.O.Box 3436, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Esther S. Ngadaya

National Institute for Medical Research-Muhimbili Center, P.O.Box 3436, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Godlisten S. Materu

National Institute for Medical Research-Tukuyu Center, P.O.Box 538, Tukuyu, Mbeya, Tanzania.

Sayoki G. Mfinanga

National Institute for Medical Research-Muhimbili Center, P.O.Box 3436, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Mary T. Mayige

National Institute for Medical Research, Headquarters, P.O.Box 9653, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Aim: To estimate the prevalence and risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS) among HIV positive patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Tanzania.
Study Design: A cross sectional study was conducted among adults aged ≥18years living with HIV-infection and receiving ART.
Place and Duration of Study: The study participants were recruited from 12 care and treatment clinics in Dar es Salaam (urban) and Mbeya (rural) regions between October 2011 and February 2012.
Methodology: The prevalence of MetS was assessed using International Diabetes Federation’s criteria. Biochemical assays, anthropometric measurements, demographic characteristics and lifestyle behavioural data were collected.
Results: Study response rate was 351/377(93.1%) and 177 (50.4%) recruited participants were from urban settings and 238 (67.8%) were females. The prevalence of MetS was 25.6% and was higher among participants from urban than those from rural areas (35.6% vs 15.5%, p<.001). The components of MetS including raised triglyceride (43.5% vs 21.3%, p<.001), low high density lipoprotein (85.9% vs 28.2%, p<.001) and raised blood fasting glucose (10.2% vs 5.2%, p=.04) were more common among participants from urban than those from rural settings. MetS Risk factors including; consumption of fruits/vegetables <5 days/week (77.0% vs 59.3%, p<.001), not participating on vigorous intensity activities (65.5% vs 29.4% p<.001) and consuming mixed cooking oil (animal/vegetable) (15.5% vs 8.5%, p=.03) were higher among participants from rural than those from urban areas. In rural, only consumption of vegetables/fruits <5 days/week (AOR=5.50, 95%CI 1.21-24.95, p=.005) predicted the prevalence of MetS. In urban; sex (female) (AOR=3.01, 95%C 1.31-6.85, p=.002), having primary/no formal education (AOR=0.32, 95%CI 0.12-0.89, p=.04) and ex- or current alcohol drinker (AOR=2.43, 95%CI 1.17-5.06, p=.02) were significant predictors of MetS.
Conclusion: Prevalence, components and predictors of MetS prevailed more in urban than in rural settings. Interventions targeting prevention of MetS to reduce diabetes and cardiovascular diseases should consider settings diversification.

Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), antiretroviral therapy, risk factors, rural, urban, Tanzania


How to Cite

Kagaruki, G. B., Kimaro, G. D., Mweya, C. N., Kilale, A. M., Mrisho, R. M., Shao, A. F., Kalinga, A. K., Kahwa, A. M., Ngadaya, E. S., Materu, G. S., Mfinanga, S. G., & Mayige, M. T. (2014). Prevalence and Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome among Individuals Living with HIV and Receiving Antiretroviral Treatment in Tanzania. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, 5(10), 1317–1327. https://doi.org/10.9734/BJMMR/2015/14455

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