Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A and E Virus Infections in Patients with Acute Viral Hepatitis in Hyderabad, India - A One Year Study
Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research,
Introduction: Acute viral hepatitis due to faeco- oral group of hepatitis viruses is endemic in India. Outbreaks of hepatitis E virus infection are more common than the hepatitis A virus.
Aim: The present study aimed at determining the seroprevalence of IgM antibodies to hepatitis A and E virus in clinically diagnosed acute viral hepatitis cases. And to determine its usefulness against the disease prevention.
Study Design: A cross sectional study was carried out on symptomatic patients referred from paediatric and gastro enterology department of Princess Esra hospital.
Place and Duration of Study: Around one hundred and eight subjects were analyzed for anti IgM antibodies to hepatitis A and E virus and liver function test in the department of laboratory medicine for Microbiology and biochemistry at Princess Esra Hospital, Deccan College of Medical Sciences between January 2013 and January 2014.
Methodology: Blood samples were collected under strict aseptic precautions and tested for anti-HAV and Anti-HEV IgM antibodies using capture elisa from diasorin. Biochemical analysis included estimation of serum aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin levels.
Results: An overall seropositivity of 54% was observed in the present study. More number of the subjects as 46.29% tested positive for anti HAV IgM than for anti HEV IgM as 7.4%. Co-infections were not noticed. Acute viral hepatitis due to hepatitis A virus is more common in children in the age group 6-10 years followed by 11-15 years and lastly 0-5 years indicating the epidemiological shift. Infection with hepatitis E virus was common in adolescent and adults. Males were more susceptible to both the infections than females. Liver function test results correlated well with viral markers indicating damage to the liver parenchyma. The socioeconomic status of the individuals revealed that 95% of the subjects were below poverty line and didn’t have access to proper drinking water and sanitary facilities. None were vaccinated against Hepatitis A virus.
Conclusion: The present data suggest that we need to have a dual pronged approach against prevention of acute viral hepatitis caused by A and E virus. Government authorities should prioritize on bringing a uniform improvement in the living standards of the society and make vaccine available to the high risk group at a subsidized rate.
- Hepatitis A virus
- hepatitis E virus
- acute viral hepatitis
- anti HAV IgM
- anti HEV IgM
- serum aminotransferases
- HAV vaccine
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