Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research 2020-05-25T09:06:44+00:00 Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research (ISSN:&nbsp;2456-8899)</strong> aims to publish research papers, reviews and short communications in the areas of medicine and medical research.&nbsp; JAMMR will not only publish traditional full research reports, including short communications, but also this journal will publish reports/articles on all stages of the research process like study protocols, pilot studies and pre-protocols. JAMMR is novelty attracting, open minded, peer-reviewed medical periodical, designed to serve as a perfectly new platform for both mainstream and new ground shaking works as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated.&nbsp;The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> The Bombay Blood Group: How Rare is It? A Case Report and a Review of the Literature 2020-05-22T08:03:12+00:00 Emmanuel Ekanem Santosh Poozhikalayil Anita Sinha <p>The Bombay blood group is a rare type of blood group which is very distinct from the ABO system and was first discovered in India about five decades ago. This blood group describes individuals who lack the H antigen and thus present with the anti H antibodies in addition to anti A and anti B antibodies. Bombay blood group is sometimes mistaken for blood group O. The significance of this blood group is in its ability to potentially cause fatal blood transfusion reaction and haemolytic disease of the foetus and the neonate.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong><strong>:</strong> This case report aims to elucidate the rare occurrence of the Bombay blood group.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><strong>:</strong> We describe a case report of the pregnancy, labour and delivery of a multiparous Indian woman with the Bombay blood group in her second pregnancy.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: </strong>The index case had an uneventful pregnancy, labour and delivery without the need for blood transfusion. The neonate was Rhesus D positive and did not have any complications.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>:</strong> Bombay blood group is a rare blood group which can lead to blood transfusion reactions and haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn. Pregnancy, labour and delivery should be managed in a unit with the availability of anti H blood to avoid foetal and maternal complications.</p> 2020-05-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Hospital-acquired Sphingomonas paucimobilis Infection in a Neonate: A Case Report 2020-05-24T08:12:13+00:00 Ahaneku Iherue Osuji Jennifer Eneyi Imaji Eyinade Kudirat Olateju Bissallah Ahmed Ekele Nicholas Baamlong Yunusa Tahiru <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The organism <em>Sphingomonas paucimobilis</em> formerly known as <em>Pseudomonas paucimobilis</em> is a strict aerobe, motile, non-spore forming, non-fermentative, Gram-negative bacillus, characterized by catalase and oxidase activities. It is an opportunistic pathogen that causes infection in healthy and immunocompromised individuals. <em>Sphingomonas paucimobilis</em> is ubiquitous and has been isolated from diverse sources including the hospital environment.</p> <p><strong>Presentation of Case: </strong>We describe the clinical characteristics, manifestations, laboratory findings and management of hospital-acquired <em>Sphingomonas paucimobilis</em> sepsis in a neonate, delivered through caesarean section and brought in from postnatal ward to special care baby unit of the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Discussion: </strong>The laboratory findings showed normal values for complete blood count, electrolytes, urea and creatinine but positive blood culture. <em>Sphingomonas paucimobilis</em> isolated from the blood was susceptible to Imipenem, Ampicilin-sulbatam, Azithromycin, Lincomycin, Ofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin and Sparfloxacin but resistant to Cefuroxime, Ceftazidime, Augumentin and Ampicillin. The isolation of this organism from the newborn whose laboratory tests were within normal acceptable values, and from the hospital environment is a case of hospital-acquired infection. The patient recovered and was discharged because of adequate treatment by the managing team and also low virulence of this organism.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study thereby recommends adequate and consistent cleaning of the newborn and maternity units of the hospital, in particular, the entire hospital equipment and its environment using a potent disinfectant to minimize the risk of hospital-acquired infections.</p> 2020-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Overview of the Management of COVID-19 Efficacy and Doubts 2020-05-25T09:06:44+00:00 O. A. Ayodeji C. N. Stanley P. C. Stanley <p>Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is defined as an illness caused by a novel coronavirus now called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2. It was first identified during an outbreak of respiratory illness cases in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. Management of COVID-19 is still unspecific as there are no vaccine or specific antiviral drugs are available for its treatment. This paper reviews the management efficacy and doubt of COVID-19.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A comprehensive search from relevant literatures, World Health Organization (W.H.O), Centre for Disease Control and prevention (CDC) official websites and announcements was performed between 1 March 2020 to 10:30 am 22 April 2020 (Nigerian time). A latest summary of 2019- nCoV and the current outbreak was drawn.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The covid-19 pandemic is spreading rapidly and several researchers are making efforts to discover drugs for its treatment. Chloroquine phosphate, vaccines and other forms of management strategies have been employed. However, preventive measures like social distancing, washing of hands with soap and water, wearing of face masks and psychosocial treatment should be adopted while waiting for pharmacological treatments.</p> 2020-05-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Dynamics of Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen Level with Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes in Chronic Hepatitis B Infection 2020-05-25T05:49:16+00:00 Shuaibu Abdullahi Hudu Saadatu Haruna Shinkafi Shuaibu Umar Babazhitsu Makun <p><strong>Background:</strong> Peripheral blood mononuclear cells containing an aggregate of immune competent cells, such as T lymphocytes, B cells and natural killer cells, play an important role in control or persistence of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Similarly, the expression of hepatitis B viral antigens on the surface of infected hepatocytes can invoke a cytotoxic T–cell response.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To investigate the dynamic changes in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and peripheral lymphocyte subsets of healthy donors and chronic hepatitis B patients.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Serum HBsAg was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay according to the manufacturer’s guidelines. Peripheral blood lymphocyte cell phenotyping was carried out by flow cytometry for all chronic hepatitis B patients and healthy blood donors.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results of this study showed a significant correlation between HBsAg level and percentage of T and NK cells <em>(r=0.366; P=0.01, r=-0.462; P=0.01,</em> respectively). On the other hand, significance variation in peripheral blood lymphocyte percentage of T lymphocyte subsets in patients were found to be directly proportional to T cell subsets CD4+and CD8+ (<em>P=0.001)</em> compared with healthy blood donor controls.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In conclusion this study highlighted the role of the HBsAg level in supressing the immune cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. Understanding the interactions between HBsAg and peripheral blood cells serves as a basis for development of HBV therapeutic vaccines and a prognostic biomarker in persistent HBV infection.</p> 2020-05-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Dehydration among Pregnant Women in Southern Nigeria 2020-05-25T05:49:14+00:00 Christopher E. Ekpenyong Nsikak E. Udokang Comfort A. Inyang <p><strong>Background:</strong> Despite available evidences that pregnant women are specific vulnerable target population for dehydration and the importance of adequate hydration to both the mother and the developing fetus, studies assessing the prevalence and associated risk factors of dehydration among pregnant women are limited.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of dehydration among pregnant women in Uyo metropolis, Southern Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A total of 316 pregnant women from selected obstetric centers in Uyo Metropolis met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated for socio-demographics, lifestyle-related behaviors and urinary specific gravity using standard instruments. Mean values were calculated and used for the determination of the hydration status of the participants. Univariate analysis was used to assess the relationship between socio-demographic variables and lifestyle related behaviours and prevalence of dehydration. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval for factors associated with dehydration in pregnancy.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> About 14.6% of the pregnant women were dehydrated, and factors associated with high prevalence of dehydration were age between 26 and 35 years, being married, urban residence, acquiring a tertiary education and income between 20,000 and 50,000 naira. Others were, null-parity, third trimester of pregnancy, physically active, poor dietary habits, alcohol consumption, inadequate water intake and short sleep duration. Inadequate water intake (1-2 cups of water) (OR=6.10,C.I=2.029-18.360) or 5-7cups of water (OR=4.04,C.I=1.385-11.785), consumption of mostly high carbohydrate diets (OR=3.55,C.I=1.003-12577), consumption of mostly high protein diets (OR=3.25,C.I=1.893-11.844) and craving for strange foods(OR=3.71, C.I=1.563-8.81) significantly increased the odds for dehydration among the participants.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Demographic, obstetric and lifestyle-related factors drive the high prevalence of dehydration among pregnant women and should be considered in designing intervention programs to prevent dehydration among pregnant women in our communities.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2020-05-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Association between Demographic Profile, Type of School and Dental Appearance Affecting Choice of Spouse among Undergraduates in Enugu, Nigeria 2020-05-23T06:36:16+00:00 Azubuike C. Okeke Nneka K. Onyejaka Nkiruka Folaranmi <p><strong>Background:</strong> Aspects of life such as social interactions and choice of partners can be influenced by human appearance. This study identified the effect of dental appearance on the choice of spouse among undergraduate students in Enugu.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> This was a descriptive cross sectional study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The study was at Federal College of Dental Technology and Therapy and Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria. The study lasted for 3 months.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> 402 final year students were recruited for the study but 4(1.0%) submitted incompletely filled questionnaires while 398(99.0%) submitted completely filled questionnaires. The mean age was 22.0± 2.24 years. More females 235(59.0%) than males 163(41.0%) participated in the study. Many were attending dental school 253(63.6%) while 145(36.4%) were attending non dental schools. All 379(95.2%) students who wished to get married believed that dental appearance can influence the choice of spouse. There was significant association between sex (<em>P</em>&lt;0.001) and wish to get married and type of school (<em>P</em>=0.001) and dental appearance affecting choice of spouse.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Many of the study participants wished to get married. Those attending dental school will consider dental appearance when making choice of a spouse and scattered teeth will affect the choice of spouse most negatively.</p> 2020-05-23T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Review of Pathogenesis of COVID-19: Considerations 2020-05-23T02:49:28+00:00 C. N. Stanley O. A. Ayodeji P. C. Stanley <p>Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with a primary target on the human respiratory system. Coronavirus disease was first discovered in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and has currently become a global pandemic. A lot is still unknown about COVID -19 pathogenesis. Prompt assessment, adequate follow up, test and retest of recovered cases to corroborate immune related considerations will go a long way to understand the pathogenesis.</p> 2020-05-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##