Main Article Content
Epidemiological literature identifies a variety of factors that can affect the mortality of COVID-19. We use a sample of 42 countries and 46 States of the US, and analyse 19 factors that could affect mortality. The factors that were found significant were the following: Population in nursing homes; pollution; prevalence of lung cancers, hypertension and diabetes; median age of population and percentage of the population above 65 years old; air traffic; population concentration; mean temperature; and UV radiation. Regarding mobility policies, quarantines to passengers arriving and suspending the entry of air passengers were found to reduce mortality; community mobility reduction in public spaces was not found to reduce mortality and the influx of people in the healthcare system in the following weeks to the outbreak.
Lauer S, et al. The incubation period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from publicly reported confirmed cases: Estimation and application. Ann Intern Med; 2020.
Instituto Superiore de Sanitat. Characteristics of COVID-19 patients dying in Italy Report based on available data on; 2020.
WHO. Regional Office for Europe COVID-19 weekly surveillance report - Week 13, March 23 - March 29. WHO; 2020.
State of Global Air. State of Global Air; 2019.
America Health Rankings. Air Pollution; 2020.
Wu X, et al. Exposure to air pollution and COVID-19 mortality in the United States: A nationwide cross-sectional study. Medrxiv; 2020.
Numbeo. Pollution Index by City 2020. Numbeo Website; 2020.
Radbin Ray Haneh, et al. The influence of drinking-water pollution with heavy metal on the expression of IL-4 and IFN-γ in mice by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cytotechnology. 2020;66,5(2014):769-77.
CDC. People who are at higher risk for severe illness. CDC Website; 2020.
WHO. Exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. WHO Website; 2004.
Tatlovich Z, et al. A comparison of thiessen polygon, kriging, and spline models of potential UV exposure. Cartography and Geographic Information Science. 2006;33(3):217-237.
Maglio D, et al. Sunlight effects on immune system: Is there something else in addition to UV-induced immunosuppression? Biomed Research International; 2016.
Lytle C, Sagripanti J. Predicted inactivation of viruses of relevance to biodefense by solar radiation. Journal of Virology. 2005;79(22):14244–14252.
Time and Date. World Temperatures. Time and Date Website; 2020.
Chan K, et al. The effects of temperature and relative humidity on the viability of the SARS coronavirus. Advances in Virology; 2011.
Sajadi M, et al. Temperature and latitude analysis to predict potential spread and seasonality for COVID-19. SSRN Electronic Journal; 2020.
CSG Networks. Countries, capitals, latitude and longitude table. CSG Networks Website; 2020.
Xfront. U.S. States. Xfront Website; 2020.
Passaro A, et al. Testing for COVID-19 in lung cancer patients. Annals of Oncology; 2020.
State of Childhood Obesity. Percent of adults with hypertension; 2020.
Mills K, et al. Global disparities of hypertension prevalence and control: A systematic analysis of population-based studies from 90 countries. Circulation. 2016;134(6):441-50.
World Bank. Diabetes Prevalence; 2020.
State of Childhood Obesity. Percentage of adults with diabetes; 2020.
World Bank. Population ages 65 and above (% of total population). World Bank Website; 2020.
PRB. Which U.S. States have the oldest populations. PRB Website; 2020.
Wikipedia. List of countries by median age. Wikipedia Website; 2020.
Wikipedia. List of U.S. States and territories by median age. Wikipedia website; 2020.
Numbeo. Health care index ranking by country. Numbeo Website; 2020.
Wallet Hub. Best and worst states for healthcare. Wallet Hub Website; 2020.
World Bank. Current health expenditure. World Bank Website; 2020.
KFF. Healthcare expenditures per capita 2014 by State of residence. KFF Website; 2020.
Wikipedia. List of OECD regions by GDP (PPP) per capita. Wikipedia Website; 2020.
World by Map. Air traffic passengers. World by Map Website; 2020.
Federal Aviation Administration. Commerical service airport (Rank Order) based on Calendar Year 2018. Federal Aviation Administration; 2019.
Wikipedia. Urbanization by country. Wikipedia Website; 2020.
Wikipedia. Urbanization in the United States. Wikipedia Website; 2020.
Wikipedia. List of cities proper by population density. Wikipedia Website; 2020.
Wikipedia. List of United States cities by population density. Wikipedia Website; 2020.
OECD. Long term care resources and utilization; 2020.
CDC. Nursing homes, beds, residents and occupancy rates, by state: United States, selected years 1995–2014; 2020.
International Organization for Migration. Mobility impacts of COVID-19. International Organization for Migration; 2020.
Google. Google Community Mobility Reports COVID-19. Google Website; 2020.
Ourworldindata. To understand the global pandemic, we need global testing – the Our World in Data COVID-19 Testing dataset. Ourworldindata Website; 2020.
Business Insider. As many as half of Europe's COVID-19 deaths were people in long-term care facilities. Business Insider website; 2020.