Review of Pathogenesis of COVID-19: Considerations

Main Article Content

C. N. Stanley
O. A. Ayodeji
P. C. Stanley

Abstract

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with a primary target on the human respiratory system. Coronavirus disease was first discovered in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and has currently become a global pandemic. A lot is still unknown about COVID -19 pathogenesis. Prompt assessment, adequate follow up, test and retest of recovered cases to corroborate immune related considerations will go a long way to understand the pathogenesis.

Keywords:
COVID -19, SARS-CoV-2, DIC, pathogenesis, Centre for Disease Control (CDC).

Article Details

How to Cite
Stanley, C. N., Ayodeji, O. A., & Stanley, P. C. (2020). Review of Pathogenesis of COVID-19: Considerations. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, 32(7), 30-34. https://doi.org/10.9734/jammr/2020/v32i730446
Section
Review Article

References

Lin L, Lu L, Cao W, Li T. Hypothesis for potential pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection-a review of immune changes in patients with viral pneumonia. Emerging Microbes Infect. 2020;9(1):727‐732.
DOI: 10.1080/22221751.2020.1746199

Rothan HA, Byrareddy SN. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. Journal of autoimmunity. 2020;102433.

Almeida JD, Berry DM, Cunningham CH, Hamre D, Hofstad MS, Mallucci L, McIntosh K, Tyrrell DA. Coronaviruses. Nature. 1968;220(650):2.

Cowley JA, Dimmock CM, Spann KM, Walker PJ. Gill-associated virus of Penaeusmonodon prawns: An invertebrate virus with ORF1a and ORF1b genes related to arteri-and coronaviruses. Journal of General Virology. 2000;81(6):1473-84.

Van Etten JL. Phycodnaviridae. In “Virus Taxonomy” (MHV Van Regenmortel, CM Fauquet, DHL Bishop, et al., Eds.).

Wege H, TerMeulen V. The structure and replication of coronaviruses. In Current topics in microbiology and immunology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. 1982;131-163.

Zhong NS, Zheng BJ, Li YM, Poon LL, Xie ZH, Chan KH, Li PH, Tan SY, Chang Q, Xie JP, Liu XQ. Epidemiology and cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Guangdong, People's Republic of China, in February, 2003. The Lancet. 2003; 362(9393):1353-8.

Holmes KV. SARS coronavirus: A new challenge for prevention and therapy. The Journal of clinical investigation. 2003; 111(11):1605-9.

Li T, Qiu Z, Zhang L, Han Y, He W, Liu Z, Ma X, Fan H, Lu W, Xie J, Wang H. Significant changes of peripheral T lymphocyte subsets in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. The Journal of infectious diseases. 2004;189(4):648-51.

Ko JH, Park GE, Lee JY, Lee JY, Cho SY, Ha YE, Kang CI, Kang JM, Kim YJ, Huh HJ, Ki CS. Predictive factors for pneumonia development and progression to respiratory failure in MERS-CoV infected patients. Journal of Infection. 2016;73(5): 468-75.

Mohn KG, Cox RJ, Tunheim G, Berdal JE, Hauge AG, Jul-Larsen Å, Group NP, Peters B, Oftung F, Jonassen CM, Mjaaland S. Immune responses in acute and convalescent patients with mild, moderate and severe disease during the 2009 influenza pandemic in Norway. PLoS One. 2015;10(11).

Xu Z, et al. Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Lancet Respir. Med.; 2020.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20) 30076-X

Mohn KG, Cox RJ, Tunheim G, Berdal JE, Hauge AG, Jul-Larsen Å, Group NP, Peters B, Oftung F, Jonassen CM, Mjaaland S. Immune responses in acute and convalescent patients with mild, moderate and severe disease during the 2009 influenza pandemic in Norway. PLoS One. 2015;10(11).

Gang L, Chen MJ, Chen W, et al. Variation in the titer of the specific IgG antibody in patients with SARS. J Trop Med. 2003; 03:283–285.

Cao Z, Liu L, Du L, Zhang C, Jiang S, Li T, He Y. Potent and persistent antibody responses against the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV spike protein in recovered patients. Virology Journal. 2010; 7(1):299.

Stockman LJ, Bellamy R, Garner P. SARS: Systematic review of treatment effects. PLoS Medicine. 2006;3(9).

Liu ZY, Li TS, Wang Z, Xu ZJ, Wang HL, Yu Y, Du TK, Bai Y, Qiu ZF, Lü W, Fan HW. Clinical features and therapy of 106 cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Zhonghuaneikezazhi. 2003; 42(6):373-7.

Wang W, Tang J, Wei F. Updated understanding of the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019‐nCoV) in Wuhan, China. Journal of Medical Virology. 2020; 92(4):441-7.

Feng D, Jia N, Fang LQ, et al. Duration of symptom onset to hospital admission and admission to discharge or death in SARS in mainland China: A descriptive study. Trop Med Int Health. 2009;14(Suppl 1):28-35.

Nikolich-Žugich J. The twilight of immunity: Emerging concepts in aging of the immune system. Nature Immunology. 2018;19(1): 10-9.

Moore AV, Korobkin M, Olanow W, Heaston DK, Ram PC, Dunnick NR, Silverman PM. Age-related changes in the thymus gland: CT-pathologic correlation. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1983; 141(2):241-6.

Moore A, Korobkin M, Olanow W, Heaston D, Ram P, Dunnick N, Silverman P. Age-related changes in the thymus gland: CT-pathologic correlation. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1983;141(2):241–246.
DOI: 10.2214/ajr.141.2.241

Tsui PT, Kwok ML, Yuen H, Lai ST. Severe acute respiratory syndrome: Clinical outcome and prognostic correlates. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2003;9(9): 1064.

Yang P, Wang X. COVID-19: A new challenge for human beings. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2020;17(5):555-7.

Nicholls JM, Poon LL, Lee KC, Ng WF, Lai ST, Leung CY, Chu CM, Hui PK, Mak KL, Lim W, Yan KW. Lung pathology of fatal severe acute respiratory syndrome. The Lancet. 2003;361(9371):1773-8.

Zumla A, Chan JFW, Azhar EI, Hui DS, Yuen KY. Coronaviruses-drug discovery and therapeutic options. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 2016;15:327–347.

Zhu N, et al. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China. N. Engl. J. Med; 2019.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2001017

Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, Hu B, Zhang L, Zhang W, Si HR, Zhu Y, Li B, Huang CL, Chen HD. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature. 2020; 579(7798):270-3.

Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, He JX, Liu L, Shan H, Lei CL, Hui DS, Du B. Clinical characteristics of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in China. Med Rxiv; 2020.

Dan H, Maureen G, Richard B. Quantitative mRNA expression profiling of ACE 2, a novel homologue of angiotensin converting enzyme. FEBS Letters. 2002; 532(1-2):107.

Letko M, Marzi A, Munster V. Functional assessment of cell entry and receptor usage for SARS-CoV-2 and other lineage B beta coronaviruses. Nature Microbiology. 2020;5(4):562-9.

Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, et al. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med.; 2020.
[Published online Jan 24]
DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001017

Chang D, Lin M, Wei L, Xie L, Zhu G, Cruz CS, Sharma L. Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of novel coronavirus infections involving 13 patients outside Wuhan, China. JAMA. 2020;323(11):1092-3.

Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, He JX, Liu L, Shan H, Lei CL, Hui DS, Du B. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020;382(18):1708-20.

Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, He JX, Liu L, Shan H, Lei CL, Hui DS, Du B. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020;382(18):1708-20.

Wang YD, Zhang SP, Wei QZ, Zhao MM, Mei H, Zhang ZL, Hu Y. COVID-19 complicated with DIC: 2 cases report and literatures review. Zhonghuaxue ye xuezazhi= Zhonghuaxueyexuezazhi. 2020; 41:E001.