Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Dehydration among Pregnant Women in Southern Nigeria

Main Article Content

Christopher E. Ekpenyong
Nsikak E. Udokang
Comfort A. Inyang

Abstract

Background: Despite available evidences that pregnant women are specific vulnerable target population for dehydration and the importance of adequate hydration to both the mother and the developing fetus, studies assessing the prevalence and associated risk factors of dehydration among pregnant women are limited.

Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of dehydration among pregnant women in Uyo metropolis, Southern Nigeria.

Methods: A total of 316 pregnant women from selected obstetric centers in Uyo Metropolis met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated for socio-demographics, lifestyle-related behaviors and urinary specific gravity using standard instruments. Mean values were calculated and used for the determination of the hydration status of the participants. Univariate analysis was used to assess the relationship between socio-demographic variables and lifestyle related behaviours and prevalence of dehydration. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval for factors associated with dehydration in pregnancy.

Results: About 14.6% of the pregnant women were dehydrated, and factors associated with high prevalence of dehydration were age between 26 and 35 years, being married, urban residence, acquiring a tertiary education and income between 20,000 and 50,000 naira. Others were, null-parity, third trimester of pregnancy, physically active, poor dietary habits, alcohol consumption, inadequate water intake and short sleep duration. Inadequate water intake (1-2 cups of water) (OR=6.10,C.I=2.029-18.360) or 5-7cups of water (OR=4.04,C.I=1.385-11.785), consumption of mostly high carbohydrate diets (OR=3.55,C.I=1.003-12577), consumption of mostly high protein diets (OR=3.25,C.I=1.893-11.844) and craving for strange foods(OR=3.71, C.I=1.563-8.81) significantly increased the odds for dehydration among the participants.

Conclusion: Demographic, obstetric and lifestyle-related factors drive the high prevalence of dehydration among pregnant women and should be considered in designing intervention programs to prevent dehydration among pregnant women in our communities.     

Keywords:
Dehydration, pregnant women, risk factors, lifestyle, demographics

Article Details

How to Cite
Ekpenyong, C. E., Udokang, N. E., & Inyang, C. A. (2020). Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Dehydration among Pregnant Women in Southern Nigeria. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, 32(7), 10-23. https://doi.org/10.9734/jammr/2020/v32i730444
Section
Original Research Article

References

Ekpenyong CE, Akpan I-AM. High prevalence and associated risk factors of dehydration among college students: implications for health and academic performance. Inter. J. Comm. Med. Pub. Health. 2017;4(4):1043-1055.

Atherfor JC, Mark JM, Garland HO, Morgan MRA, Pidgeon J, Sonis. Changes in water and electrolyte balance, plasma volume and composition during pregnancy in rats. J. Physiol. 1982;330:81-93.

Zhang N, Zhang F, Chen S, Han F, Lin G, Zhai Y, He H, Zhang J, Ma G. Association between hydration state and pregnancy complications, maternal-infant outcomes: protocol of a prospective observational cohort study. BMC pregnancy and childbirth 2020:20:82.
Available:https://doi.org/10,1186/s12884-020-2765-x

Mulyani EY, Briawan HD, Santoso BI. The impact of dehydration in the third trimester on pregnancy outcome, infant birth weight and length. J. Gizi. Pangan. 2018;13(3): 157-164.

Guyton AC, Hall JE. Textbook of Medical Physiology. 11th edition. W.B. Saunders Company, USA; 2006.

Davison JM, Vallotton MB, Lindheimer MD. Plasma osmolality and urinary concentration and dilution during and after pregnancy: evidence that lateral recumbence inhibits maximal urinary concentrating ability. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 1981;88(5):472-9.

Hytten FE, Paintin DB. Increase in plasma volume during normal pregnancy. J. Obstet. Gynacecol Br. Emp. 1963;70:402-7.

Davison JM, Sheills EA, Barron WM, Robinson AG, Lindheimer MD. Changes in the metabolic clearance of vasopressin and in plasma vasopressinase throughout human pregnancy. J. Clin. Invest. 1989; 83(4);1313-8.

Ershow AG, Brown LM, Cantor KP. Intake of tap water and total water by pregnant and lactating women. Am. J. Pub. Health 1991;81(8):328.

Watson PE, McDonald BW. Water and nutrients intake in pregnant New Zealand women association with wheeze in their infants at 18months. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 2014;23(4):660-670.

Bardosono S, Morin C, Guelic KX, Pohan R. Pregnant and Breastfeeding women: Drinking for two? Ann. Nutr. Metab. 2017; 70(1):13-17.

Pieters B, Brianna H, David R, Esa D. The prevalence and associated factors of dehydration among young women in Hawally, Kuwaite: A prospective 25-years study. Obesity (Silver spring). 2011;21(8); 1514-15118.

Malisova O, Athanasios P, Anastasia N, Vassiliki B, Aristides A, AntonisZ, dan Maria K. Estimation of water balance after validating and administering the water balance questionnaire in pregnant women. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutri. 2014;65(3):280-285.

Padräo P, Neto M, Pinto M, Oliveiro AC, Moreira A, Moreira P. Urinary hydration biomarkers and dietary intake in children. Nutr. Hosp. 2016;33(3):314.

Lee HS, Park S, Kim MH. Factors associated with low water among South Korean adolescents. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010, Nutr. Res. Pract. 2014;8(1):74-80.

Ekpenyong CE. Risk of dehydration among construction workers in relation to work task and personal characteristics. Ital. J. Occup. Environ. Hygiene 2016;7(2):99-111.

Shaheen NA, Alqahfani AA, Assiri H, Alkhodair R, Hussein MA. Public knowledge of dehydration and fluid intake practices: Variation by participants characteristics. BMC Pub. Health 2018;18: 1346.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-6252-5

Ekpenyong CE, Daniel NE, Akpan EE. Vaginal douching behavior among young adult women and the perceived adverse health effects. J. Pub. Health Epidem, 2014;6(5):182-191.

Dmitrieva NI, Burg MB. Increased insensible water loss, contributes to aging related dehydration. PLoS One 2011; 6(5): 20691.
DOI:10.137journalpone0020691

Rosinger AY, Chang AM, Buxton OM, Li JJ, Wu S, Gao X. Short sleep duration is associated with inadequate hydration: Cross-sectional evidence from US and Chinese adults. Sleep. 2019;1-10.

Colwell CS. Preventing dehydration during sleep. Nat. Neuro. 2010;13(4):403-404.