Circadian Rhythm of Oral Temperature in Adult Hyperthyroids, Sudan

Main Article Content

Ishag Ibrahim Gumma Sheriff
Hamid Gad Elmoula Mohamed Salim

Abstract

Introduction:  A 24 hours long cyclic change in body temperature, ie. body temperature circadian rhythm is used as a marker of other body circadian rhythms.

Objectives: To determine circadian rhythm in oral temperature of adult hyperthyroids at Nyala and Alfashir- western cities, Sudan.

Study Design: A descriptive cross-sectional of stratified random sampling.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Gezira University, Wadmadani, Sudan, from December 2006 to March 2007.

Methodology: A sample of thirty clinically diagnosed thyrotoxic cases (females = 29, and a male) of age ranging from 18 to 50 years, attended to Sudanese atomic energy corporation (SAEC) for receiving positively confirmed laboratory tests were enrolled to conduct this study. Early morning and late evening oral temperatures were recorded by the mercury-in-glass thermometer. A questionnaire was used to exclude any other fever conditions. Thyroid hormones, ie. T3, T4, and TSH levels were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) at SAEC of Nyala with reference ranges 0.4 - 4.4 mIU/L, 0.69 - 2.02 nmol/L, and 50 - 150 nmol/L for TSH, T3, and T4 respectively. Subjects of T3 and T4 values above reference ranges with TSH below reference were considered hyperthyroid. The obtained data were analyzed statistically by the statistical package for the social science programme (SPSS), ie. T-test.

Results: Mean oral temperature and circadian rhythm were found to be 37.25 ± 0.34ºC and 0.43 ± 0.30ºC respectively. The effect of sex on mean oral temperature was statistically significant (p = 0.01), whereas age did not show any statistical effect (p = 0.36).

Conclusion: The decreased oral temperature circadian rhythm of thyrotoxic patients, confirms that other body functions also abnormally affected when body temperature circadian rhythm is abnormal.

Keywords:
Circadian rhythm, oral temperature, hyperthyroid patients, adult Sudanese.

Article Details

How to Cite
Gumma Sheriff, I. I., & Mohamed Salim, H. G. E. (2019). Circadian Rhythm of Oral Temperature in Adult Hyperthyroids, Sudan. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, 31(3), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i330286
Section
Original Research Article

References

Ganong WF. Review of Medical Physiology. 7th ed. Beirut: Large Medical Books; 1975.

Kumar PJ, Clark ML. Clinical Medicine. 5th ed. W. B. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company; 2002.

Wenger CB. Medical Aspects of Harsh Environments. 2001;51-86.

Houten SV, Landauer T, Husney A, Sproule D. Body temperature; 2005.
(Accessed December 03 2006)
Available:http://www.webmd.com/hw/health_guide_atoz/hw198785.asp

Pergola PE, Habiba NM, Johnson JM. Body temperature regulation during hemolysis in long-term patients: is it time to change dialysate temperature prescription? Am J Kidney Dis. 2004;44: 155-165.

Mackowiak PA, Worden G. Carl Reinhold August Wunderlich and the evolution of clinical thermometry. Clin Infect Dis. 1994; 18:458-467.

Mackowiak PA, Wasserman SS, Levine MM. A critical appraisal of 98.6oF, the upper limit of the normal body temperature, and other legacies of Carl Reinhold August Wunderlich. JAMA. 1992; 268:1578-1580.

McGann KP, Marion GS, Camp L, Spangle JG. The influence of gender and race on mean oral temperature in a population of healthy older adults. Arch Fam Med. 1993; 2:1265-67.

Guyton AC, Hall LE. Textbook of Medical Physiology. 10th ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company; 2000.

Ganong WF. Review of Medical Physiology. 21th ed. Beirut: Large Medical Books; 2003.

Collins KJ, Abdel-Rahman TA, Goodwin T, Mctiffin L. Circadian body temperatures and the effects of a cold stress in elderly and young adults. Oxford Journal of Age and Ageing. 1995;24:485-488.

Bray JJ, Gragg PA, Macknight ADC, Mills RG. Lecture Notes on Human Physiology. 4th ed. Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Science Pty Ltd; 1999.

Sukkar MY, Elmunshid HA, Ardwai MSM. Concise Human Physiology. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications. 2000;268-273.

Howell TH. Oral temperature range in old age. Gerontol Clin. 1975;17:133-36.

Mason DJ. Circadian rhythm of body temperature and activation, and the well-being of older women. Nuts Res. 1988;37: 276-281.

Gubin DG, Gubin GD, Waterhouse J, Weinert D. The circadian body temperature rhythm in the elderly: effect of single daily melatonin dosing. Chronobiol Int. 2006;23:639-658.

McLellan TM. Sex-related differences in thermoregulatory responses while wearing protective clothing. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1998;78:28-37.

Kaciuba-Uscilko H, Grucza R. Gender differences in thermoregulation. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2001;4:533-36.

John DB, Philip GA, Gelson T. Clinical Laboratory Methods. 8th ed. Missouri: The C. V. Mosby Company; 1974.

Hopley L, Schalkwyk J. Cellular effect of T3; 1998.
(Accessed August 13 2007)
Available:http://www.anathestist.com/icu/organs/endocrFindex.htm/thyfx.htm

Bankova S. 50 Graves' disease and Hyperthyroidism Symptoms; 2006.
(Accessed May 01 2007)
Available:http://www.gravesdiseasecure.com/50symptoms.html

Russell W, Harrison RF, Smith N, Darzy K, Shalet S, Weetman AP, Ross RJ. Free triiodothyronine has a distinct circadian rhythm that is delayed but parallels thyrotropin levels. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2008;93(6): 2300-2306.