Adherence to Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT) among Children in Close Contact with Adult Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) Patients

Main Article Content

Nsirimobu Ichendu Paul
Nneka Gabriel-Job

Abstract

Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is among the top ten leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, and studies have shown that adherence to a six Month course of Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT) reduces the incidence of TB disease in HIV-negative/positive populations at risk of developing active TB disease.

Objective: This study was carried out to identify active TB cases among children aged 0-5 years who are in close contact with adult cases of pulmonary TB (PTB), to determine the adherence rate to IPT among these close contacts that do not have active TB and to identify factors associated with non adherence if any.

Methodology: This study was a prospective descriptive study carried out in Rivers state, Nigeria in two health facilities that offers services for TB diagnosis and treatment. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the Rivers State Ministry of Health while verbal consent was obtained from the parents/caregivers of the children. Children aged 0-5 years who were in close contact with newly diagnosed PTB cases were recruited for the study. They were screened for HIV and evaluated for TB using clinical features and standard laboratory investigations. Those without active TB disease were commenced on isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for six months at a daily dose of 5mg/kg after adherence counselling and followed up at the health centres. Obtained data was analysed using Epi Info Version 7.2.3.1 statistical software. Descriptive statistics was used while the test for association between variables was done with chi-square test at p ≤ 0.05 level of significance. Frequency tables were used for presentation of results.

Results: A total of Sixty three children were recruited for the study 37 (58.7%) were males while 26 (41.3%) were females. Thirty two (50.8%) were children of index PTB patients while 29 (46.1%) belonged to lower socio-economic class. Their age ranged from 4 months to 4 years with a mean age of 2.84years ±1.27years. Six (16.2%) out of the 37 males and 2 (7.7%) out of the 26 females were confirmed to have active TB, giving a TB prevalence of 12.7%. The gender difference was not statistically significant (p= 0.32). Of the fifty five children that commenced INH in the first Month, only twenty four of them completed the six Month course of INH, giving an IPT adherence rate of 49.6%. Identified reasons for non adherence includes ‘My child is not sick’, ‘No transport Money’, ‘My child is writing exams”. “My child is tired of the drugs”, “the Health workers are not friendly’ and ‘long waiting time before collecting medications”.

Conclusion: Early contact tracing is important for early detection of TB cases in children. Adherence to IPT in this study is low and strategies like community tracing of defaulters using trained social workers and community nurses as well as use of well-supervised and convenient ambulatory treatment centres that are manned by trained lower cadre health staff can improve adherence.

Keywords:
Pulmonary tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, preventive therapy, TB-HIV.

Article Details

How to Cite
Paul, N. I., & Gabriel-Job, N. (2019). Adherence to Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT) among Children in Close Contact with Adult Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) Patients. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, 30(11), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.9734/jammr/2019/v30i1130274
Section
Original Research Article

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