Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, Treatments, and Therapy: Effect of the CCR5 Mutation

Main Article Content

Brittany Hurst
Meagan Maki
Frank Mallory
Kabwe K. Nkongolo

Abstract

Since the beginning of the HIV epidemic, more than 70 million people around the world have been infected with HIV and about 50% of them have died. In 2016, globally, about 36.7 million people were living with HIV. The most common resistance to HIV infection is associated with a mutation on CCR5 co-receptors. Individuals who do not carry this natural resistance rely for survival on the antiretroviral therapy (ART) which is very costly and requires lifelong treatments. In addition to the Antiretroviral Therapy, other treatment methods are being developed. They include RNA and protein Interference methods and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant methods. A common limitation of these methods is the potential health risks on patients being treated. Gene therapy would be a more efficient and sustainable approach of fighting this disease, in the absence of a cure.  Currently, the most studied option involves the modification of the CCR5 gene to prevent the entry of the virus.  The editing of this gene within the host’s DNA has been explored in three ways that include Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs), Transcription Activator-like Effectors Nuclease (TALEN), and CRISPR-Cas9. This review is a critical analysis of progress made on HIV treatments and of studies pertinent to the chemokine co-receptor 5 and gene therapies.

Keywords:
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), CCR5 co-receptor, antiretroviral therapy (ART), RNA and protein interference, Gene therapy.

Article Details

How to Cite
Hurst, B., Maki, M., Mallory, F., & Nkongolo, K. K. (2018). Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, Treatments, and Therapy: Effect of the CCR5 Mutation. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, 28(1), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.9734/JAMMR/2018/45018
Section
Review Article